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McINTOSH, CHILLY (c.1800-1875)

Chili McIntosh

Chilly McIntosh was a political and military leader of the Creek Nation. Born in Georgia, McIntosh was the eldest son of Lower Creek chief William McIntosh, and half brother of Daniel N. McIntosh. Chilly McIntosh signed the 1825 treaty of Indian Springs, but, unlike his father, who negotiated the agreement, escaped execution for having sold the tribe's Georgia lands. In 1828 McIntosh led the first party of Lower, or McIntosh- faction, Creeks to Indian Territory. As a nephew of Lower Creek chief Roley McIntosh, he signed the major Creek treaties of the period, including the 1861 treaty of alliance with the Confederate States of America.

Despite his advanced age McIntosh began the Civil War as a lieutenant colonel in command of the First Battalion of Creek Cavalry. He was promoted to colonel when his battalion was reorganized as the Second Regiment of Creek Mounted Volunteers in 1862. In 1864 his men combined with other units to form the First Indian Cavalry Brigade under the command of Brig. Gen. Stand Watie. McIntosh's troops participated in several battles including Round Mountain, Pea Ridge, Fort Wayne, and Honey Springs. After the war McIntosh retired to his farm near Fame in present McIntosh County, Oklahoma, where he died on October 5, 1875.

SEE ALSO: CIVIL WAR ERA.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Angie Debo, The Road to Disappearance: A History of the Creek Indians (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1941). John Bartlett Meserve, "The MacIntoshes," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 10 (September 1932). Jessie Randolph Moore, "The Five Great Indian Nations," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 29 (Fall 1951). Joseph B. Thoburn and Muriel H. Wright, Oklahoma: A History of the State and Its People, Vol. 1 (New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Co., 1929).

Jon D. May

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