Narrative of the Coronado Expedition, 1540-1542. Edited by George P. Hammond and Agapito Rey. Coronado Cuarto Centennial Publications, Vol. II. (Albuquerque: the University of New Mexico Press, 1940. xii + 413 pp. Frontispiece, notes, and index, $3.00.)
For many years much interest has been manifested in the expedition of Francisco Vasquez de Coronado which took place during the years 1540 to 1542. This has been true not only in the Southwest, but throughout America as a whole. With the approach of its four hundredth anniversary Congress provided for a United States Coronado Exposition Commission while the legislature of New Mexico created the Coronado Cuarto Centennial Commission of New Mexico which has authorized the publication of the Coronado Cuarto Centennial Series of which this is the second volume.
It is a large and very attractive book and will be a welcome addition to the library of anyone at all interested in the history of the Southwest. An introduction of thirty-three pages gives a short sketch of Coronado's early life and a brief account of the expedition itself. The setting of the story having thus been laid, the remainder of the volume is given over to the English translations of all known documents relating to Coronado's journey. These are twenty-nine in number. They include three letters of Coronado and two of the viceroy, Antonio Mendoza, to King Charles I of Spain, and two letters of Coronado to Mendoza. Coronado's appointments as governor of New Galicia, and as leader of the expedition are also given as well as the instructions issued to Fray Marcos of Niza and the latter's report of his journey made in the spring and summer of 1539.
One very important document given is the Muster Roll of the expedition. This was discovered by Professor Arthur S. Aiton of the University of Michigan, and the Spanish text published by him in the American Historical Review, Vol. XLIV, while his English translation was issued in 1939 by the William L. Clements Library, of that University as Bulletin XXX.
By far the longest document included in the volume is the history of the expedition by Pedro de Castaneda de Najera, undoubtedly the most famous of the chroniclers of the journey. This covers 192 pages of the text and gives a fairly detailed and complete account of the entire expedition. Casteneda's narrative was written some years after Coronado's return to Mexico, however, and is open to the charge that the author's memory may at times have been faulty.
Other important documents included are the accounts of the Coronado and Cardenas trials which had never been previously translated into English. Most of the shorter documents have been translated from photostatic copies of the originals in the archives of the Indies at Seville.
While the volume does not contain the Spanish text of any
document, it is in all other respects considerably more comprehensive than the account of the Coronado expedition published by George Parker Winship in the Fourteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, which has been the standard work on the subject since its publication in 1896. An excellent picture of present day Compostela, capital of the province of New Galicia in 1540, adds to the attractive features of the volume.
This book will be of real interest to Oklahomans who desire to know more of the history of their state since it is generally agreed that Coronado must have traveled entirely across Oklahoma from south to north in his search for Quivira, usually designated as having been located on the Arkansas River in the present state of Kansas. He must also have crossed the Panhandle on his return journey from Quivira to the place where his army was encamped on the Rio Grande a short distance above the site of the present city of Albuquerque. The volume is beautifully printed and bound, has an adequate index and ample foot notes and citations to other works on the same subject add much to its value.
University of Oklahoma. Edward Everett Dale
Arkansas, a Guide to the State. Compiled by the makers of the Writers Program of the Work Projects Administration in the State of Arkansas. American Guide Series. (New York; Hastings House, 1941. xxvii + 477 pp. Illustrations, bibliography and maps, $2.50.)
The reader who has had occasion to think that the literary work of the W P A must of necessity be amateurish and immature, will find in this book reason to revise his judgment.
It conforms to the formula of W P A Authority, but fortunately there are departures suggested by the knowledge, experience and imagination of those locally in charge that have made it a contribution of real merit, interest, and significance. If a guarantee were needed of the historical accuracy of the book, it lies in the names of the consultants, and particularly of Dallas T. Herndon, Miss Clara Eno, Professor Lemke and the lamented Charles J. Finger, who recently died while the book was in process of construction.
This reviewer believes that the early part of the book is a literary achievement of real merit, though he questions the reference to sources such as Pope's and Hempstead's histories, of which he has a poor opinion.
As Arkansas and Oklahoma together constituted Arkansas Territory after 1819, a book purporting to cover Arkansas Territory after that date must necessarily interest Oklahomans, and should of course, until 1836, include many items inseparable from that part of the territory that afterward became Oklahoma. That this book does not undertake to incorporate any of this information is, in the judgment of this reviewer, a serious defect probably attribut-
able to the authorities in Washington who prescribed the formula for the work. That formula is doubtless carried out in part III, which comprises 117 tours of places of local interest and value. The beautiful illustrations give one a graphic picture of the state and its many historical activities and events. There is a bibliography of 12 pages, and a long list of consultants who are supposed to have contributed each in some measure to the book. An excellent index of 23 pages is another feature that commends itself.
Muskogee Grant Foreman
The Plains Indians and New Mexico, 1751-1778. By Alfred Barnaby Thomas. Coronado Cuarto Centennial Publications. (Albuquerque: The University of New Mexico Press, 1940. xv + 232 pp. Bibliography. $3.50. )
Border relations of Spanish New Mexico and the nomadic Southern Plains Indian tribes were much like those of Anglo-American New Mexico in that there were raids and counter raids, temporary treaties, broken promises, renewed wars, and other periods of truce. The whole represents the clashing of hostile cultures, one of which was primitive and nurtured by a desert-like region and the other was mature, having been cradled in a foreign land.
Professor Thomas's The Plains Indians and New Mexico, 1751-1778, is but an interesting mosaic unit of our general border picture. It is a volume consisting of three parts: (1) "Historical Introduction"; (2) "The Frontier Policy of Governor Don Thomas Velez Cachupin"; and (3) "The Frontier Policy of Governor Don Pedro Fermin de Mendinueta." The last two divisions consist of more than seventy well chosen and interesting documents. In general, this study bears all the ear-marks of scholarship usually found in other books by the same author and is invaluable in a study of Indian relations during the period involved.
This reviewer finds little to criticize adversely. Perhaps a better title could have been chosen for the book, for obviously the emphasis of the documents presented is on Spanish administration and not the Indians, as the titles of the last two divisions of the study would suggest. More editorial notice of place names, Indian tribes, and location of ranges would have added to the value of the book. It seems hardly necessary to list in the introduction (pp. 21-24) the trade goods seized from the French intruders when they are found in greater detail in an accompanying document (pp. 91-93 and 95-101). And "Bolton, 'French Intrusions into New Mexico, op. cit., p. 391" (p. 75, fn. 11) should have been given in full, since it is the first time that a Bolton reference is found in this series of footnotes. But these errors, if errors they are, are only minor and do not detract from the generally fine quality of the study.
The volume is accompanied by a satisfactory bibliography and index, and is done in an unusually attractive format.
University of Oklahoma Carl Coke Rister
Diary and Letters of Josiah Gregg. Edited by Maurice Garland Fulton; with an introduction by Paul Horgan. (Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1941. xvii + 413 pp. Illustrations and bibliography. $3.50).
This book appears as one of the volumes of the American Exploration and Travel Series, inaugurated a few years ago by the University of Oklahoma Press. The discovery of unpublished diaries and letters of Josiah Gregg is a matter of major importance in American letters, and particularly in Oklahoma, where every person who is at all well read is familiar with his classic Commerce of the Prairies. It is natural for the literate Oklahoman to expect to find in this book notes and diaries from which Gregg wrote his Commerce of the Prairies, but in this he is doomed to disappointment, as the only part of the book that relates to his travels across Oklahoma has to do with his return from Santa Fe in 1840, and carries the reader from the Texas Panhandle into Oklahoma only about as far as Blaine County, where he crossed the Canadian River and continued his journey to Van Buren on the north side of that stream. From this crossing of the river eastward the book is silent. Perhaps it is just as well, so far as the annotation of the book is concerned, for the editor got into difficulties as he approached the neighborhood of Chouteau's trading post near the present Lexington, Oklahoma. His footnote 15 on page 67 confuses this trading post occupied by A.P. Chouteau in 1836, with Edward's post near the mouth of Little River, not identified historically in any way with Chouteau.
The remainder of the book is made up in the main of interesting diaries and letters touching Gregg's life in later years in Missouri, Arkansas and Texas. From page 195, May to September, 1846, the diary relates to the regiments of Arkansas volunteers on their adventure into the Mexican War, about which the book contains descriptions of much interest. It continues in chronological order and, with 38 pages of appendix, presents correspondence between Gregg and his relatives carrying the reader along to 1851.
Except for that brief extract of the diary dealing with Oklahoma, and the editor's mistake in connection with Chouteau's trading post, this reviewer does not pretend to be familiar with essential facts dealt with in the documentation of the book, which otherwise seems to have been done with meticulous care.
The polished introduction by Mr. Horgan adds much to its value, and gives the reader some necessary historical background that adds much to the pleasure and profit of its perusal. The book has an excellent index. It is a beautiful piece of work, and well sustains the enviable reputation heretofore earned by the University of Oklahoma Press.
Muskogee, Oklahoma Grant Foreman
The Loyalists in North Carolina during the Revolution,. By Robert O. DeMond. Duke University Publications. (Durham: Duke University Press, 1940. x + 286 pp. Bibliography and appendices. $3.00)
In these days when the British Empire is being shaken to its foundations a renewed interest in loyalty to the ideals and heritage of our once mother-country is manifesting itself in the United States. The enthusiastic reception of the novels of Kenneth Roberts, Robert Graves and Van Wyck Mason which portray the loyalist side of our Revolutionary War, are eloquent of an inescapable trend in circles of enlightened American public opinion. These books reach readers who never heard of Wilbur Siebert, Moses Coit Tyler, Lewis Einstein, Isaac Harrell, Epaphroditus Peck, Egerton Ryerson, or Lorenzo Sabine.
Mr. DeMond's book is a welcome addition to the scholarly studies being made in various parts of the country regarding the strength and nature of the loyalists. Too often hitherto treated biographically is isolated and unfortunate individuals we are gradually being enabled to see the civil war in its true colors and as a whole—or at least in patches—patches making up communities, counties or colonies. This study is therefore of unusual interest to the American historian, despite the fact that it is somewhat marred by repetitiousness, frequent misspellings, other minor careless errors, and a stodgy, wooden style. This reviewer would wish that the author, having presumably digested a great mass of material, had given more conclusions, estimates and judgments, rather than being largely content to rely on statements from less scholarly predecessors.
The materials used are chiefly drawn from the Colonial and State Records of North Carolina, buttressed by numerous unpublished manuscripts and the standard printed records, newspapers, books and articles. The omission of maps is regrettable in such a study.
Mr. DeMond states that a majority of the inhabitants of North Carolina were loyal to the crown; this despite the fact that they had been disloyal to its governors shortly before. This switchover is not adequately explained. In fact nowhere in the book is sufficient attention given as to why this or that action occurred. One is largely left in the dark as to why the commoners of North Carolina would right for local freedom, but not for freedom for the colony and the potential nation.
The book is especially valuable for the factual information it contains but one looks in vain for the historian's delight: a clear, concise and reasoned narrative. It is not the definitive study on loyalism in North Carolina.
University of Oklahoma Alfred B. Sears
Red Carolinians. By Chapman J. Milling. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1940. xxi + 438 pages. Illustrations, Bibliography, Index. $4.00.)
This scholarly book gives the entire history, so far as it can be traced, of all the Indian tribes that inhabited the Carolinas at any time since the coming of the white man. It is of interest to Oklahomans because so many of these tribes are now merged in the composite citizenship of the state.
There were the gifted Cherokees, who lived in the North Carolina mountains and the region to the south and west, and whose achievements have shaped so much of the early history of Oklahoma. There was also a branch of the Chickasaws, detached from the parent tribe in Mississippi, who lived for a time on the Savannah. Several of the tribes were associated with the formidable Creek Confederacy of the Georgia-Alabama region, later the Creek Nation of Indian Territory days. Among this number were the powerful Cussetas (Cofitachiqui) , whose thriving, populous country was plundered by De Soto, and who were among the founders and leaders of this redoubtable Confederacy. Oklahomans will remember that Isparhecher, leader of the "Green Peach War" of the 1880's and Chief of the Creek Nation 1895-99, was a Cusseta, and many present-day Oklahoma Creeks trace their descent from the same tribal "town." There were the Euchees, a distinct linguistic stock, who joined the Creek Confederacy at an early period, and who now live in the vicinity of Sapulpa; and the Savannahs, a southern branch of the Shawnees, now as in early days, close friends of the Euchees. The Apalachicolas also formed a "town" of the Confederacy, which under the name of Tulwa Thlocco still claims the allegiance of numerous Oklahoma Creeks. A few Catawbas, members of a Siouan tribe of the Carolina coast, came during the late 1800's to settle with the Creeks in the Indian Territory, and several prominent families of the Eufaula vicinity can still trace their descent from this group. On the other hand the Yamassees, who were Christianized and colonized in Florida by the Spanish, were destroyed by the Creeks; and the story of their extermination is still told as an Oklahoma Indian legend. The Cusabos, the Westos, the tribes of the Guale province, the Iroquoian Tuscaroras, the Apalachees of northwestern Florida, and many obscure Siouan tribes also figured in Carolina colonial history, but they are unknown to Oklahomans.
Although Dr. Milling is interested mainly in his Indians as Carolinians, he has not slighted the Oklahoma part of his research. His book also is written with the detachment characteristic of Oklahomans who write Indian history; his Indians are neither fiends nor noble red men, but people who committed depredations and at the same time suffered grievous wrongs. It is difficult to read; its style is that of the World Almanac, and it assumes too much knowledge of local Carolina history on the part of the reader. But it is beautiful in format and a marvel of comprehensive research and accurate scholarship. It deserves a place in the reference library of every Oklahoman interested in the origins of the Indians of his state.
Marshall, Oklahoma Angie Debo
America's Economic Growth. By Fred Albert Shannon. (New York: MacMillan Company, 1940. viii + 867 pp. Maps, tables, annotated bibliography and index. $3.75.)
This volume is essentially a revision of Professor Shannon's Economic History of the People of the United States (1934). In both format and content the new edition is superior. The economic growth of the United States is logically divided into five major parts: The period of Colonial Dependence, to 1789; The Period of Dominant Sectionalism, 1789-1865; The Rise of Capitalism, 1865-1900; The Climax of Capitalism, 1900-1929; The Crisis of Capitalism, Since 1929. The earlier edition omitted the last section, incorporating its limited discussion of the passing of rugged individualism and the inauguration of the New Deal as the final chapter in the former section. This has now been completely reorganized and ample consideration is given to the economic trends of the past decade concluding with a chapter on "Symptoms of Reaction." Three rather lengthy and unwieldly chapters in the earlier portions of the book have been wisely sub-divided.
Designed as a one semester text, the earlier edition was found by nearly all instructors to be too long. The present book, despite the addition of material bringing the story to date, is much shorter. The omissions and excisions have been carefully made. A much improved format adds definitely to readability. It is to be regretted, however, that the maps and tables, both of which occur in sufficient abundance, are not listed. Why should an economic history shun illustrations? In the opinion of this reviewer a few wisely chosen illustrations would be informative and would enliven this valuable account of the economic development of our country. Twenty-seven pages of annotated bibliography and a good index are given.
Professor Shannon has a lively style and a gift in the coinage of forceful expressions. In the evaluation of issues, he seldom leaves doubt as to his own personal views. Evaluations are arrived at, he says, not by "whether the fact was good or bad, but whether it tended toward growth or decline of institutions and society." The reader, however, does not feel compelled to accept these judgments nor are they given in a pontifical manner; a sense of historical balance and a judicial mind prevent the pitfall of dogmatism.
University of Oklahoma William E. Livezey
Three Virginia Frontiers. By Thomas Perkins Abernethy. (University Louisiana; Louisiana State University Press 1940. xiv + 96 pp. $1.50.)
The need for an adequate interpretation of the sources of American democracy finds expression in Professor Abernethy's recent book, Three Virginia Frontiers. The volume is made up of three essays, entitled "Tidewater", "Piedmont and Valley", and "Kentucky", which were presented as the Fourth Series of the Walter Lynwood
Fleming Lectures in Southern History at Louisiana State University in 1940. Believing, that generalizations about the significance of the frontier in American history should await conclusions supported by detailed studies, the author traces "the development of the conflict between European institutions and frontier conditions in one specified area—Virginia, our first frontier— as her boundaries existed at the time of the Confederation." Although giving due acknowledgment to the frontier thesis as an important factor, he shows that in regions fairly representative—the Tidewater, Piedmont, Valley, and the territory constituting West Virginia and Kentucky—American development was conditioned not by one but by many factors, and moreover, that at times the frontier was only a temporary influence and far from being the chief one.
To counterbalance the tendency to idealize the transforming influence of the frontier, Professor Abernethy presents a realistic study of conflicting currents. "European customs and traditions, British legal systems, and the methods by which public lands were disposed of," largely offset the leveling tendency of the frontier. He makes clear, for instance, that in the tidewater section social stratification was due to such factors as transportation difficulties, land ownership, difficulties of adjustment, emphasis upon the family as the fundamental social unit, and the type of laws and the administration of the government. In tracing the checkered course of democracy in Virginia in the seventeenth century, he makes the point that Bacon's Rebellion instead of being a manifestation of frontier democracy represents just as does the Puritan Revolution in England, the desire of the people to safeguard their customary rights. Such a conclusion is strongly supported, in the opinion of the reviewer, by contemporary material dealing with those sections of Virginia early settled; the wind of democracy was blowing not merely from the west but from other directions as well. For the latter part of that century, the author reminds us that illiberal policies formulated overseas, rather than the frontier, determined development. He then gives data for the Piedmont Valley, West Virginia, and Kentucky regions to illustrate his thesis that democracy did not gain "new strength each time it touched a new frontier" and that something more than free land and advance westward are needed to explain American growth and expansion.
An interpretation of our national life that, without denying the influence of the frontier, pays due regard to the social and political heritage of the Old World and that recognizes the play and counterplay of various forces, is a timely contribution. Professor Abernethy, moreover, by testing his conclusion in the light of factual evidence within a specific portion of the area to be historically charted, has taken an important step toward arriving at a sound generalization for the whole.
Susie M. Ames
Randolph-Macon Woman's College
Pascua, A Yaqui Indian Village in Arizona. By Edward H. Spicer. (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1940. xxxi + 319 pp. Tables, figures, and plates, $3.50. )
To show that Indians do exist with relation to other people, economically and socially, Edward H. Spicer and his wife spent a year with the Yaqui Indians in Pascua village, near Tuscon, Arizona. Some 429 individuals (1937) constituted the basis of their study in social anthropology.
Yaqui Indians were living on the lower Rio Yaqui in Southern Sonora where the Spaniards first recorded seeing them. They fought fiercely to maintain their independence; first, against the Spaniards, and later against the Mexicans. They were hunters and agriculturists, and though physically made excellent slaves for the Spanish mines and henequen plantations, the Yaquis died rather than surrender their freedom. Ales Hrdlicka says, "This is the only tribe on the continent that, surrounded by whites from the beginning of their history, have never been fully subdued." Always, the Yaquis lived in a continuous state of revolt against the government. After the uprising of 1895, Diaz tried to solve the Yaqui problem by a program of extermination. During the following years many Yaquis fled to the north, and eventually some families crossed the border into the United States, settling in seven villages in the southern part of Arizona. Pascua was established as a geographical unity shortly after 1917. There Spicer was able to study the effects of present social and economic influences upon their cultural development. He found Pascuans laboring on ranches and railroads, making and selling adobe brick and baskets, and doing various odd jobs; some were even on the W. P. A. Pascuans conformed to the economic life about them in the American community; yet they retained the social system and religious ceremonies used by their fathers and grandfathers when living in the river villages of Sonora. Spicer and his wife took up residence in Pascua learned Spanish and attacked the problem of how an economic system developed in one culture would combine with a social and ceremonial system developed in another. The results of their investigations are set forth in this book.
The preface clearly states the problem, the method of approach, and the position and relationships of the anthropologists to the village. A general history of the Yaquis and a summary of their settlements and material culture set the stage for more detailed investigations. The observations on economics, kinship, ceremonial sponsorship and societies, relation of the church and pueblo, the Pascola dancer, and the ceremonial system are each given a full chapter. The ceremonial system is divided into a discussion of events and patterns and ancestors and deities. Spicer concludes his study with comprehensive summary of the nature of the social and ceremonial organizations and the nature of the conflict between them and the economic system, setting forth a hypothesis of func-
tional inconsistencies in Pascua culture as defined by Radcliffe Brown. He describes assimilation of the Pascola and the problem of leadership in the ceremonial societies. In the light of his investigation he found he might restate the hypothesis: "Where a society is faced with functional inconsistency, and a way is presented to resolve the crisis as it is manifest in the lives of the individuals by their withdrawal either into the old system or out of society, there need occur no cultural resolution of the inconsistency, even though the disappearance of the culture results. " It becomes clear then that Pascua culture continues to exist and even in certain respects to develop, but its existence is definitely threatened by economic necessity, which is gradually reducing the society which finds the culture usable.
Social studies of this nature partially fulfill their function by acting as springboards to other problems of a similar nature. It is possible that a comparative study of the Yaquis of the Rio Yaqui in Sonora and those of Pascua would suggest solutions to other questions arising from Spicer's investigation. This book appears to be an interesting basis for future work among the Yaqui Indians of Sonora and Arizona.
Texas Technological College W. C. Holden
Acculturation of Seven American Indian Tribes. Edited and summarized by Ralph Lenton. (New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1940. 526 pp. $4.00.)
This volume contains seven monographs about seven Indian tribes of the West and the South-West. The primary purpose of this book is to make available information on the acculturation process as it has gone on, and still is going on in certain American Indian tribes. The term acculturation in which the authors have used it has been defined by the Social Science Research Council, thus, "Acculturation comprehends those phenomena which result when groups of individuals having different culture come into continuous first hand contact, with subsequent changes in the original cultural pattern of either or both groups."
The Puyallup of Washington are the first to be discussed by Marion W. Smith. The home of these Indians is around the southern end of the Puget Sound. Christmas Eve, 1854, was the date when they first made a treaty with the United States. The author points that better conditions for the acculturation of native people would have been hard to imagine. The Indians and whites worked together at the same task. The only direct attempt to change the native culture were those in connection with the abandonment of the communal homes and the introduction of Christianity. There was no organized tribal life to be disrupted. The individualistic patterns of the native culture made it easy for certain Indians to take on white habits without waiting for the rest of the tribe to assume
them. When a chance came, as it did by the end of the century with the railroads, the backwash of civilization always manages to be in the forefront of its pioneering. Social discrimination, introduction of liquor and the sale of lands, a sudden influx of wealth descended upon the Indian for which he had no pattern. As Dr. Smith then points out, the inevitable result is the degeneration of a race.
The White Knife Shoshoni of Nevada is the second Indian tribe taken up and discussed by Jack S. Harris. This branch of Shoshoni originally ranged over a portion of the Great Basin; now they are located in the northeastern section of Nevada. These Indians had no agricultural lands, their rivers had no fish, buffalo were too far east, consequently they lived on the barest existence. They were early made prey to all the white man's vices and none of his virtues. The first direct attempt at cultural change came with the agency period. The White Knives have no tendency to glorify the past. There is no factor, as the author sees it, which would prevent their complete Europeanization.
Marvin Oplet writes the chapter upon the Southern Ute of Colorado. The author in developing the acculturation of this Indian tribe stresses the fact that the Ute of Colorado got the horse before he came in contact with white civilization, and this fact has affected his cultural relations with the white. The horse was the important element in his life, because it gave him an independence not known before. This independence kept the Ute from submitting as readily to the whites as the Shoshoni.
The Indian tribe in the northwest was the Northern Arapaho of Wyoming which is discussed by Henry Elkin. The Arapaho of Wyoming were given a reservation within their original hunting grounds. He too had the horse and was dependent upon the buffalo. When the buffalo was eliminated, the Arapaho became economically dependent upon the government. His traditional desire to travel and visit has made the Arapaho take over the automobile more enthusiastically than any other known tribe. The automobile has given him a sense of values and prestige that was lost with the extermination of the buffalo. On the whole, Arapaho has not, so the author believes, made much progress taking on white culture.
The Fox of Iowa, the author Natalie F. Jaffe, points out, had more favorable conditions in which they came into contact with white civilization; hence there was no difficult period of transition as with the Plains tribes. All original culture was valued, but the Fox were not unmindful of the benefits to be found in white ways. The Fox were not historically minded; they easily forgot the past. They willingly borrowed from the whites.
The only tribe outside the United States is the Alkatche Carrier of British Columbia discussed by Irving Goldman. These Indians have occupied their present territory since prehistoric time. They have not been over run by other Indians or the white. The
change in their culture, which has taken place, has been voluntary. Their economic basis has been furs. The author sees a dependent state economically, in the near future, because of the decrease in fur-bearing animals, but that their final assimilation is far off.
The south-western Indian, the San Ildefonse of New Mexico, is discussed by William Whitman. The San Ildefonse still carry on their own methods of agriculture. The San Ildefonse culture was predominately masculine. With the white contacts in recent years, the reverse is taking place. Pottery is the women's work; they have the economic advantage.
Students of Indian culture will find this volume valuable. Each monograph has a bibliography and a summary by the editor.
Oklahoma College for Women Anna Lewis
The First Michigan Frontier. By Calvin Goodrich. (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1940. viii + 344 pp. $2.50.)
The first Michigan frontier was the village of Detroit and a few scattered outposts such as Michillimackinac, St. Josephs, Sault Ste Marie, and a half dozen other "Minor Guardians of the Frontier." No army of farmers, clearing land and planting crops, invaded Michigan in the eighteenth century. Only missionaries, traders, and soldiers ventured in the region. Except for Detroit and the neighboring Canadian vicinity where ribbon-like farms existed, the other places were little more than stockades inhabited by a handful of traders, Jesuit missionaries, and irregularly garrisoned by a few soldiers. Indian encampments were to be found close by in all instances.
The author has not attempted to give a connected story of development nor a history of the Michigan frontier. Instead he has painted a literary mural depicting life at Detroit around the year 1763. There are scenes before and after that date, but the focal point is the time of the siege by Pontiac. The flora and fauna are adequately described, largely by the use of quotations from letters, journals, and diaries of contemporaries. The coureurs de bois and other "Brethren of the Wilderness" are pictured with a reality which makes these characters once again living men. Social life in Detroit, from the humblest habitant to the governor and his circle, is shown with great attention paid to the smallest detail, even as to the types of cooking utensils. The economic life, too, is so interwoven that the reader does not feel that the business of making a living is something apart from everyday existence. Although the chief locale is Detroit at the end of the French regime only one chapter, "A Siege on Odd Lines," is specifically devoted to the attempt of Pontiac to drive out the English. The conspiracy and the war, however, run as a theme throughout the whole work.
While there is no central figure in the book, the characters of Cadillac, Pontiac, and Major Henry Gladwin appear most often. One short chapter, "A Lesser Caesar," does deal with the great
Indian chief, and Gladwin is discussed as a man in a portion of another chapter, "Certain Figures of the Frontier." Two of the appendices are on John Montresor and Col. Arent Schuyler de Peyster. Other soldiers, such as Robert Rogers, Captain Dalyell, and various commandants make brief appearances. Among the traders, James Sterling and Alexander Henry are the most outstanding.
To make this picture the author has done a vast amount of painstaking research and has shown what can be done with a large mass of detail which on the surface might appear to be inconsequential. The view is blurred in places however, by vague statements or assumptions, but this is due to a lack of definite information. The assumptions are sometimes based upon much later events, which probably were also true of the time written about, but they do, nevertheless, give some distortion to the picture. For example, a description of the forests of Michigan in 1903 is used to describe those of Cadillac's day (p. 39). No doubt there was little change, but there is a possibility that 1903 was some different from 1703. The same may be said about Isaac Weld's description of the Indian dress in Upper Canada in 1795-97 as applying to 1763 even though Indian customs were "fixed" (p. 117). The "ceremony of the bell" and other French customs of the early nineteenth century may have been modified over a period of fifty or one hundred years (pp. 60, 74). A map showing the location of the other posts on the frontier would aid the reader not familiar with the geography of Michigan.
These are only minor criticisms, however, and in no way detract from the general excellence of the book. Although it may be claimed that it is a collection of miscellanies, these are so woven together that the reader finishes with a good and as accurate as possible picture of this first frontier of Michigan.
Wayne University Joe L. Norris
Lookout: The Story of a Mountain. By Robert Sparks Walker. (Kingsport, Tennessee: Southern Publishers, Inc., 1941. Xviii + 282 pp. Illustrations, map, and appendices. $2.00.)
As its subtitle indicates, this is the story of a mountain. This interesting volume by the well known naturalist and historian, Robert Sparks Walker, gives an account of Lookout Mountain which is visited by historians and thousands of tourists each year. The author opens his account with a description of the mountain itself-its caves, its rock cities, its waterfalls, creeks, springs, its wild flowers, shrubs and trees. The second section of the book deals with Lookout Mountain in wartime, including Indian Wars and the fighting around the mountain during the War between the States. Of particular interest to our readers living in Oklahoma should be the description of Indian battles in chapter VI and the references to
Sequoyah, Daniel S. Butrick, Daniel Ross, John Ross, Ard Hoyt and Cyrus Kingsbury.
The latter part of this volume deals with educational activities taking place on this mountain. Here is related the founding of the University of the South and the brief but interesting story of the Lookout Mountain Educational Institution.
One of the special features of Lookout is the index, although here and there is found an omission of a name which should be included in a later edition. The reader is particularly impressed with the attractive illustrations which enhance the value of the book. The author writes with a smooth and flowing style in spite of the use here and there of an infelicitous expression. Lookout should be read with interest by many readers.
J. W. M.
Boys Life of Will Rogers. By Harold Keith. (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, Publishers, 1939. Ix + 271 pp. Illustrations. $2.00.)
The Boys Life of Will Rogers is a real contribution to the rapidly growing literature on the life of this noted Oklahoman. As its title indicates, this interesting volume was written primarily for boys although the reviewer has observed that it has been read with interest by members of both sexes and by adults.
The author writes from an intimate knowledge of his subject. He came from the section where Rogers spent his earlier years and knows the background.
The story is based on interviews with many persons who knew this interesting personality in the various periods of his life, and on careful research. The book deals largely with the periods of Rogers' boyhood extending through his early twenties. The volume is projected against the background of his Cherokee country, the influence of his parents, particularly his mother and the environment of his times. The versatility of Rogers' career is indicated by some of the chapter headings: "Early Days on Rab's Creek"; "First School Days"; "Hard Lessons"; "A Horse and a Herd"; "At Willie Halsell College"; "The World's Fair at Chicago"; "Scarritt College"; "Kemper"; "A Panhandle Cowboy"; "Trailing a Herd to Kansas"; "Days at Oolagah; "Argentine"; "The Mulhall Ranch and the World's Fair of 1904"; "Madison Square Garden and Vaudeville."
The twenty-eight illustrations redrawn from photographs by Karl S. Woerner add to the interest of the reader. A comprehensive index would add to the value of the book. The Boy's Life of Will Rogers should find a place on the shelves of libraries in Oklahoma as well as elsewhere.
J. W. M.
Pioneers in American Anthropology: The Bandelier-Morgan Letters, 1873-1883. By Leslie A. White (Coronado Cuarto Centennial Publications, 1540-1940. Edited by George F. Hammond. Bandelier Series. xv + 272, and viii + 266 pp. (Albuquerque, The University of New Mexico Press, 1940. Vol. I, vi + 272 pp. Vol. II, vi + 266 pp. Illustrations, $10.00 per set.)
This is an extremely interesting biographical study. Far from being merely a descriptive account of travels, it is a glowing, step by step account of the processes of personal research done by Adolph F. Bandelier, a man sensitive to the actions and opinions of others.
In an Introduction of fourteen divisions, Professor White brings forth the setting, sketches of the lives of both Bandelier and Lewis H. Morgan, and critical examinations of various viewpoints relating to the 158 letters of Bandelier to Morgan, and the 5 letters to Mrs. Morgan following Morgan's death, a period covering the years between 1873-1883. Unfortunately there are no letters of Morgan to Bandelier. However, the close insight into the character of Bandelier is a very valuable study to help us understand the thoroughness of his work in anthropological research. If the thread of this research seems to be hung too much with real or fancied slights, or somewhat biased or subjective opinions, the reader will have to remember that the field of anthropology was, at that time, rather infirmly established, and, consequently, we find a certain groping and cluttering of ideas. Thus we find out how Bandelier, through his correspondence and earlier talks with the older Morgan, allowed himself to be won over from a sound position to a rather unsound one, in regard to the primitive society of Mexico.
Professor White, in clear and concise language, weighs carefully both Morgan's and Bandelier's working hypotheses and conclusions, bringing us up-to-date with a worthy evaluation for future reference. He is careful to connect both men with their age, and to point out that, "what is quite apparent today, may have been obscure more than a half a century ago. Moreover, it is much easier to discover the errors and shortcomings of those who have gone before us than it is to surpass their achievements." (Vol. I, p. 53). This is, of course, a point which cannot be stressed too often to all modern anthropologists.
In speaking of the results of this study, Professor White feels that it not only showed how "Morgan was the most important single factor in Bandelier's scientific career", but also showed "a rather vivid picture of the condition of the science of anthropology in America at that time", when scientists of good caliber were struggling to outgrow the mid-Nineteenth Century romanticism of spectacular "treasure hunting" expeditions in their effort to study mankind by scientific factual method. (Vol. I, pp. 103-104).
Elizabeth Y. Kingman