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Volume 81—2001

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Distribution and Relative Abundance of the Oklahoma Salamander (Eurycea tynerensis)

George R. Cline1 and Renn Tumlison2

Oklahoma Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit and Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078

1Current address: Department of Biology, Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, AL 36265

2Current address: Department of Biology, Henderson State University, Arkadelphia, AR 71999

The Oklahoma salamander (Eurycea tynerensis) occurs in the western Springfield Plateau of the Ozark Mountains of Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri. Our survey of distribution examined 213 sites, 50 of which produced salamanders at the time of sampling, with several new records of distribution documented. Most sites at which salamanders were found were clumped along a few drainages. Potential threats to the species include graveling operations, siltation, and permanent flooding from damming of streams. Notes are provided about the conditions of habitat at new as well as historic sites. ©2001 Oklahoma Academy of Science


Introduction Methods Results Discussion References Top of Page Table of Contents Home

The Oklahoma salamander, Eurycea tynerensis, is a small neotenic salamander endemic to gravel-bottomed streams located along the western slopes of the Ozark Mountains of Oklahoma, Missouri, and Arkansas (1-3). The Springfield Plateau is a unique subregion of the Ozarks due to the presence of deep cherty limestone deposits and to the presence of E. tynerensis.

Oklahoma salamanders have been collected from 28 localities in five Oklahoma counties — Adair, Cherokee, Delaware, Mayes, Ottawa — with specimens deposited in the Oklahoma State University Museum of Zoology (OSU) and University of Michigan Museum of Zoology (UMMZ) (2,4-6). In Arkansas, animals were collected at eight sites in Benton County,[Carnegie Museum of Natural History] (7,8); and in Missouri at 40 sites in Barry, McDonald, Newton, Stone, and Taney counties (3,9,10).

Museum records at OSU and UMMZ indicated high population densities at some Oklahoma and Missouri sites. Dundee (2) reported population densities ranging from 2.3-24.2 salamanders per ft2 (0.09 m2) at Pineville, Missouri, yet recent status surveys conducted in Missouri (10) and Arkansas (8) indicated lower densities. Both reports suggested that the species is threatened by habitat loss caused by siltation and gravelling operations. Oklahoma salamanders are considered rare or endangered species in all three states (11-13; T. Johnson, personal communication); however, no current data exist concerning the status of the Oklahoma salamander in Oklahoma.

This study was conducted to achieve an extensive survey of the status of the Oklahoma salamander in Oklahoma and a less extensive survey of sites in Missouri and Arkansas. We report relative abundance and conditions supporting populations of Oklahoma salamanders in the areas surveyed.


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Potential survey sites were determined from historic records and 7.5 min U.S. Geological Survey quadrangle maps. Details of the 213 specific locations visited are provided in the final report submitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (14) and marked on quadrangle maps housed at the Tulsa Field Office. Previous authors (8,10) suggested that the salamanders typically were found in streams bounded by narrow valleys, so we sampled 213 such sites intensively from 1

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March through 10 October, but primarily during June and July of 1988. Salamanders were collected by turning submerged stones and catching exposed individuals in aquarium nets. All sites were sampled during daylight for 30 min by two researchers, i.e., 1 work-hour. We surveyed seven microhabitats in each stream: pools, pool edges, riffles, riffle edges, runs, run edges, and isolated pools. Runs were defined as flowing water that was not mixed as violently as riffles. We attempted to invest equal time and intensity while sampling each microhabitat. Three sites in Oklahoma were visited more than once to ascertain within-site variation in density and to gain insight about daytime versus night-time activity. These were: Tyner Creek (the type locality), 4 visits; Peavine Creek, an historic location subject to disturbance by gravel operations (2), 6 visits; and Rock Creek at Camp Egan, a site with historically high population densities based on museum records at OSU, 18 visits. Multiple visits were not included in this analysis, and results of those studies will be reported elsewhere.

Sites were coded for presence/absence and the number of salamanders observed. Relative population density was estimated as the number of salamanders observed per work-hour. Wet channel width (water only; m), dry channel width (total width of the streambed; m), and average water depth (cm) were recorded. Water temperature was measured to 0.2°C with a rapid register thermometer. Flow was measured with a Teledyne Gurley pygmy current meter. Substrate size was coded by use of a modified Wentworth scale (15). Embeddedness is a measure of the accumulation of particles <2 mm diameter that were found filling interstitial spaces under the surface layer of rocks. Aquatic and shoreline vegetation and local landform was recorded for each site. Stream order was determined from 1:500,000 scale water resources maps.


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Two hundred thirteen sites were examined in the three-state area (14; Appendix 1). Voucher specimens of E. tynerensis collected from the new locations were deposited in the Oklahoma State University Museum of Zoology. Two sites in Arkansas, one in Missouri, and 25 in Oklahoma were new records of distribution. Salamanders were present at 50 (23.5%) of the surveyed sites and absent at 82 (38.5%). The remaining 81 (38.0%) sites were dry at the time of survey. Salamanders occupied 37.9% of the sites that had surface flow. Salamanders were found at 43.5% of 92 Oklahoma sites with water at the time of survey, 17.8% of 28 Arkansas sites, and 21.7% of 23 Missouri sites. Missouri and Arkansas sites were examined in early July when water levels were dropping and many streams were dry, thus comparison among states probably is biased.

Salamanders were observed at 50% of the historic sites in Oklahoma. Three historic sites in Oklahoma (Turkey Ford, Marvin Springs, MacSpadden Falls) were not surveyed because of active gravel operations, denial of access by the landowner, heavy embeddedness, or lack of surface water at the site. Nearby available habitat was sampled in each of these cases, i.e., Council Creek, Tyner Creek, Steeley Springs. Five historic Oklahoma sites could not be located (unnamed creek 9.1 mi W of Colcord, Stansberry-January Cave, Hendron Spring, 0.5 mi E Tahlequah, Moody Township). Three historic sites were dry (Boudinott Springs, Northeastern State University, Turkey Ford), one was heavily embedded (Marvin Springs), and one was flooded (3 mi. S of Salina). E. tynerensis historically has not been collected at the spring off Cloud Creek (16), but we collected specimens in Cloud Creek. We were unable to enter Little Spring Creek at the OK Hwy 82 bridge, but we collected salamanders at two other sites on Spring Creek. Museum specimens at OSU and UMMZ collected at Pipe Springs and identified as E. tynerensis were actually Typhlotriton spelaeus. Historic sites in Missouri were identifiable only by the stream name and the quadrangle map; thus our sample sites were chosen based on easy access.

Salamanders were found in the Baron Fork, Illinois, Spavinaw, Honey, Saline, Spring, Grand, Elk, and White River drainages (Fig. 1). Geologically, their distribution is restricted to the southwestern portion of

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the Springfield Plateau, bounded on the west by the Grand River and the Osage Plains, and on the south by the Boston Mountains. To the northeast their distribution abuts the western edge of the Salem Plateau, but there was no obvious geological barrier to the north or east.

The stream bed at positive sites had a mean depth of 9.9 cm (range = 1-48 cm). Wet channel width averaged 5.0 m (range = 1-14 m), and dry channel width averaged 11.9 m (range = 1.5-48 m). Average flow rate was 19 cm/s (range = 0.2-75 cm/s). Water temperature averaged 18.9°C (range = 14-23°C). Substrate size was between categories 3 and 4 (particles 16-64 mm and 65-256 mm, respectively). Embeddedness was between categories 3 and 4 (25-50% and 50-75%, respectively). Shorelines comprised riparian forests, fields, and cliffs. Dominant tree species in riparian forests included sycamore (Platanus occidentalis), willows (Salix spp.), American elm (Ulmus americana), and oaks (Quercus sp.). Water willow (Justicea americana) was the most common emergent aquatic macrophyte. A few sites had attached filamentous algae.

Salamanders were found in creeks in broad or narrow valleys. Positive sites often were bordered by cliffs on one side. When cattle pastures bordered creeks, narrow riparian zones usually were present. Salamanders were found in first- (e.g., Rock, Black Fox Hollow, and Dog Hollow creeks), second- (e.g., Tyner, Saline, and Summerfield creeks), and third-order (Spavinaw creek) streams. Extensive field observations indicated that larger streams seldom supported higher densities of salamanders. Salamanders were found in slow moving, shal-

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low water along pools, runs, and riffles, and in isolated pools (17). Salamander populations were clumped along major drainages; the greatest concentration of positive sites occurred along the Illinois River northeast of Tahlequah, Oklahoma (Fig. 1).

Densities ranged from 1-28 salamanders/work-h. Rock Creek had high densities of salamanders ranging from15 salamanders/work-h, during one daytime survey, to 92 salamanders/work-h during a night observation, indicating appreciable variation was possible within sites. Twenty salamanders were counted in a 1-m long stretch in 20 min at Camp Egan. Densities appeared to be low at Peavine Creek, an historic site subjected to periodic gravelling operations. Repeated surveys there produced no more than 5 salamanders work-h.


Introduction Methods Results Discussion References Top of Page Table of Contents Home

We expanded the known range of E. tynerensis approximately 3 km west with the discovery of the Spring Creek site. The population of salamanders at Off Davis Hollow in Barry County, Missouri, represents a 1 km range extension, pending identification of several salamanders collected in Christian County, Missouri (T. Johnson, personal communication).

In general, populations appear to be viable at most locations, with a few notable exceptions. The site 4.8 km south of Salina (5) was flooded sometime after the completion of Lake Hudson Dam in 1964. Although likely extirpated from this site, salamanders may exist further upstream from the site, but this area was not surveyed. Dundee's (2) Turkey Ford site was dry and a major gravel operation was in progress. We collected Oklahoma salamanders under the bridge of OK Hwy 10 approximately 1.3 km downstream from Dundee's site, but our site is threatened by flooding from Grand Lake. Damming of creeks on private land for watering of cattle and recreational use also threatens many sites.

Salamanders were present at Peavine Creek, but the density appeared to be much lower than literature and museum records indicated. Dundee (2) noted that gravel operations began at Peavine Creek in 1954. Observations made by Cline over the previous 6 y and during this study suggest that this site continues to be disturbed by gravelling. The long-term movement and removal of gravel may have resulted in a negative effect on the salamander population. Salamanders were present at other sites where small gravel operations occurred, so this species apparently can withstand some habitat alteration. However, there appears to be an increase in gravelling throughout the region, and more sites are being modified to provide recreational areas, increasing the threat to salamander populations. Care must be taken when comparing our density results with historic records because equivalent collecting techniques were not used. Long-term monitoring of several sites on relatively undisturbed and heavily impacted streams to determine the effect of gravelling on salamander populations is warranted.

Siltation appears to be a bigger problem in Missouri and Arkansas than in Oklahoma. Streams in those states tended to have smaller riparian zones, were surrounded by fields for cattle grazing, and tended to have deeper soils than comparable Oklahoma sites. Interstitial spaces among gravel particles were filled with silt at many of these sites. Becker (10) and Polechla (8) suggested that increased siltation clogged the gills of salamanders and affected their ability to respire. E. tynerensis has reduced gills and probably relies on cutaneous respiration for much of its gaseous exchange, thus siltation may not inhibit branchial respiration for the salamanders. However, siltation fills spaces among stones and inhibits movement of the salamander through the substrate to avoid predation and dessication. Furthermore, it may suffocate eggs, and it may increase the biological oxygen demand, reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen that is available for the animals.


This research was conducted under the auspices of the U.S. National Biological Survey, Oklahoma Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit; Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation, U.S. Fish and Wild-

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life Service, Oklahoma State University, and Wildlife Management Institute, cooperating.


Introduction Methods Results Discussion References Top of Page Table of Contents Home

1.   Dowling HA. Geographic relations of Ozarkian amphibians and reptiles. Southwest Nat 1956;1:174-189.

2.   Dundee HA. Habitat selection by aquatic plethodontid salamanders of the Ozarks, with studies on their life histories [Ph.D. dissertation] Ann Arbor(MI): University of Michigan; 1958. 185 p. Available from University Microfilms.

3.   Johnson TR. The amphibians and reptiles of Missouri. Jefferson City, MO: Missouri Department of Conservation; 1987. 369 p.

4.   Bragg AN. The amphibia of Cherokee County, Oklahoma.Herpetologica 1955;11:25-30.

5.   Dundee HA. Notes on salamanders collected in Oklahoma. Copeia 1947; 1947:117-120.

6.   Dundee HA. Eurycea tynerensis. Cat Am Amphib Reptiles, ASIH, Ken-sington, MD 1965;22:22.1-22.2.

7.   Bonati RL. The amphibians and reptiles of northwestern Arkansas: a report on their abundance and distribution [M.S. thesis] Fayetteville (AR): University of Arkansas; 1980. 155 p. Available from University Microfilms.

8.   Polechla PJ Jr. Distribution of the Oklahoma salamander (Eurycea tynerensis) in Arkansas. Final report to the Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission; 1987. 18 p.

9.   Anderson P. A second list of new herpetological records for Missouri. Nat Hist Misc 1957;161:1-5.

10.   Becker DR. Oklahoma salamander survey - Final report to the Missouri Department of Conservation; 1986. 13 p. Available from Missouri Department of Conservation.

11.   Reagan DP. Threatened native amphibians of Arkansas. In: Arkansas natural area plan. Little Rock: Arkansas Department of Planning; 1974. p 93-99.

12.   Glass BP. Mammals, reptiles and amphibians. In: Rare and endangered vertebrates and plants of Oklahoma. Rare and Endangered Species of Oklahoma Committee and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service; 1975. 35 p.

13.   Ashton RE Jr. Threatened and endangered amphibians and reptiles of the United States. SSAR Herp Circ 1976;5:1-65.

14.   Cline GR, Tumlison R, Zwank P. Report of the study of the Oklahoma salamander, (Eurycea tynerensis). Final report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; 1988.143 p.

15.   Bain MB, Finn JT, Brooke HE. Quantifying stream substrate for habitat analysis studies. N Am J Fish Manag 1985;5:499-500.

16.   Rudolph DC. Aspects of the ecology of five plethodontid salamanders of the western Ozarks. Am Midl Nat 1978; 100:141-159.

17.   Tumlison R, Cline GR, Zwank P. Surface habitat associations of the Oklahoma salamander (Eurycea tynerensis). Herpetologica 1990;46:169-175.

Received: November 20, 2000; Accepted: June 12, 2001

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Appendix 1. Localities visited during the survey of distribution of the Oklahoma salamander (Eurycea tynerensis). Comments either describe the site at the time of visit if no E. tynerensis was found, or gives the number of individuals found in what appeared to be good habitat (several or many were qualitative assessments of numbers seen). Most sites were roadside locations with sampling at the spring or along the creek above and below the bridge.

        State Section, Comments
                   County        Township,
                              Location                Range

                              Marvin Springs, 6.3 mi N U.S. Hwy 62                S23 T18N R24E heavy sediment
                              Tyner Creek, 6.4 mi N U.S. Hwy 62                S23 T18N R24E 2
                              Tyner Creek, 6.3 mi N U.S. Hwy 62                S23 T18N R24E 0
                              Turkey Hollow Creek, 7 mi N U.S. Hwy 62                S23 T18N R24E site dry
                              Murrell Hollow 0.75 mi N Clear Fork Church                S15 T18N R24E site dry
                              Clear Fork Branch of Tyner Creek                S15 T18N R24E 4
                              Tate Parris Hollow Creek                S28 T19N R25E heavily embedded
                                        5 mi W, 1 mi N Ballard               
                              Fall Branch, Illinois River                S29 T19N R24E 2
                                        6.7 mi N Dog Hollow bridge               
                              Peacheater (=Courthouse) Creek                S13 T17N R24E 5
                                        U.S. Hwy 62 at Christie               
                              Dennison Hollow Creek, W Christie                S2   T17N R24E site dry
                              Baron Fork River 0.6 mi S Christie                S18 T17N R24E 0
                              Scraper Hollow Rd 2.2mi S Christie                S24 T17N R24E site dry
                              Scraper Hollow Rd 2.75 mi S Christie                S25 T17N R24E heavily embedded
                              Tyner Creek 2.5 mi N U.S. Hwy 62                S33 T18N R24E 12
                              Wilkerson Hollow Rd 0.6 mi SE U.S. Hwy 62                S8   T17N R25E site dry
                              Green Creek, Wilkerson Hollow Rd                S9   T17N R25E heavily embedded
                                        2 mi SE U.S. Hwy 62               
                              Tyner Creek at U.S. Hwy 62 bridge                S8   T17N R23E 3
                              unnamed creek off N side Illinois                S13 T19N R25E site dry
                                        River 2 mi W U.S. Hwy 59               
                              Beaver Creek 1.5 mi S OK Hwy 33                S2   T19N R25E site dry
                              Ballard Creek and 2 springs 0.25-1                S25 T19N R25E embedded
                                        mi W Ballard               
                              unnamed creek 2 mi W Ballard                S26 T19N R25E embedded
                              Pipe Springs Hollow                S16 T14N R23E site dry
                              Dog Hollow Creek near Eagle Bluff                S4   T18N R23E 20
                              Kirk Springs Hollow                S35 T19N R23E 2
                              Falls Branch, Illinois River                S23 T19N R23E 4
                                        0.9 mi W Round Hollow Access               
                              2.9 mi N Round Hollow, Illinois R.,                S13 T19N R23E 28
                                        Winset Hollow               
                              Black Fox Hollow at OK Hwy 10 bridge                S13 T19N R23E 15
                              Pumpkin Hollow Creek 2 mi N                S25 T18N R23E 19
                                        Pumpkin Center Cemetary               
                              Elk Creek 2 mi E OK Hwy 82                S8   T14N R23E heavily embedded
                              Elk Creek 1.5 mi N Cookson, OK Hwy 82                S31 T15N R23E exposed bedrock
                              Pumpkin Spring 2.75 mi S Eagle Bluff on                S26 T18N R22E several
                                        OK Hwy 10               
                              2.4 mi W OK Hwy 10, rd to Moodys                S15 T18N R22E heavily embedded
                              creek at Eagle Bluff floats                S13 T18N R22E 15
                              Molly Field Hollow 1 mi S Peavine                S1   T18N R22E 1 site dry, other
                                        Creek on OK Hwy 10 (also S6,7 T18N R23E)                access denied
                              Peavine Creek,Hanging Rock, OK Hwy 10                S5   T18N R23E 5, gravel operations
                              3.9 mi S Dog Hollow bridge, Telamay Hollow                S18 T18N R23E 1
                              Blackbird Creek OK Hwy 82 bridge                S22 T18N R21E 2
                              Spring Creek 1.5 mi NE Peggs                S20 T19N R21E 3
                              Blacksmith Hollow Creek, 1.7 mi NE Peggs                S20 T19N R21E site dry
                              Camp Egan 3 mi E jct. OK Hwy 51 & U.S. Hwy 62                S11 T18N R23E 22
                              3 tribs to Baron Fork River, 2-2.5 mi N                S13 T17N R23E site dry
                                        OK Hwy 51               
                              Wall Trip Branch, Baron Fork River                S26 T17N R23E site dry

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        State Section, Comments
                   County        Township,
                              Location                Range

                                        0.5 mi E OK Hwy 51               
                              Tahlequah City Park, Tahlequah Creek                S33 T17N R22E site dry
                              0.7 mi W Hwy 10, rd to Steeley                S2   T17N R22E 23
                                        Spring Baptist Church               
                              Cedar Hollow, E side Illinois                S31 T18N R23E several
                                        River 2 mi W section rd to Briggs               
                              Tully Hollow Creek 1 mi W section                S5   T17N R23E 0
                                        rd to Briggs               
                              2 unnamed creeks, 1.2 mi E OK Hwy 10                S17 T17N R23E site dry
                                        Sparrowhawk Mt.               
                              unnamed creek near Sparrowhawk                S7   T17N R23E site dry
                                        Primitive area               
                              Boudinot Springs 0.5 mi S OK Hwy 51                S25 T17N R22E site dry
                              Crazy Creek 1 mi S Tonnence, 0.5 mi E                S26 T21N R25E 0
                                        OK Hwy 116               
                              Spavinaw Creek at gaging station                S3   T21N R25E 1
                              N prong Summerfield Creek 2.7 mi N Chloeta                S20 T23N R22E 6
                              S prong Summerfield Creek, 2.6 mi N Chloeta                S20 T23N R22E cattle impact
                              Cloud Creek 2 mi W Colcord, OK Hwy 116                S26 T21N R24E 0
                              Cloud Creek Spring, OK Hwy 116                S26 T21N R24E several
                              Cherokee Creek 4 mi N, 1 mi E                S8   T21N R24E many
                                        Colcord East Corporate boundary               
                              unnamed creek 5 mi N OK Hwy 116                S33 T22N R25E site dry
                              Hog Eye Creek 6 mi N OK Hwy 116                S28 T22N R25E site dry
                              unnamed creek 4 mi N, 3.5 mi W                S3   T21N R24E site dry
                                        Colcord East Corporate boundary               
                              Crazy Nance Hollow 4 mi N, 3 mi W                S3   T21N R24E site dry
                                        Colcord East Corporate boundary               
                              Beartoter Hollow 4 mi N, 2.5 mi W                S11 T21N R24E site dry
                                        Colcord East Corporate boundary               
                              unnamed creek 4 mi N, 2.25 mi W                S11 T21N R24E site dry
                                        Colcord East Corporate boundary               
                              unnamed creek 4 mi N, 0.5 W                S1   T21N R24E site dry
                                        Colcord East Corporate boundary               
                              Spavinaw Creek 4 mi N Colcord, East Boundary Rd.                S1   T21N R24E exposed bedrock
                              Beamer Hollow Creek 4 mi N, 0.3 mi E Colcord                S6   T21N R25E site dry
                              spring 2.75 mi E, 0.2 mi N Colcord                S28 T21N R25E heavily embedded
                              spring 2.75 mi E, 0.4 mi N Colcord                S28 T21N R25E heavily embedded
                              trib to Cherokee Creek 2.7 mi E,                S28 T21N R25E site dry
                                        0.5 mi N Colcord               
                              2.75 mi E Colcord, OK Hwy 116, N 0.5                S28 T21N R25E 0
                                        mi where stream crosses section road               
                              Cherokee Creek 2.75 mi E Colcord                S21 T21N R25E 2
                                        OK Hwy 116, N 2 mi on section rd               
                              trib to Cherokee Creek, 1 mi N,                S29 T21N R25E heavily embedded
                                        1.5 mi E Colcord East Corporate boundary               
                              trib to Honey Creek, 0.25 mi E Butler Church                S26 T24N R24E site dry
                              trib to Honey Creek, 0.5 mi E Butler Church                S26 T24N R24E 1
                              Honey Creek 3.8 mi S OK Hwy 25                S23 T24N R24E heavily graveled
                              Honey Creek vic Snell Cemetary                S24 T24N R24E 0
                              Honey Creek trib 3.75 mi S OK Hwy 25                S24 T24N R24E heavily embedded
                              Honey Creek 3.2 mi S OK Hwy 25                S24 T24N R24E deep, fast water
                              Honey Creek, 2 tribs 3 mi S OK Hwy 25                S18 T24N R25E site dry
                              Honey Creek, Cave Branch 3 mi S OK Hwy 25                S18 T24N R25E algae, sudsy water
                              unnamed creek 3 mi S, 0.6 mi E                S13 T24N R24E site dry
                                         jct OK Hwys 25 and 10               
                              Elm Creek, 2 branches 1.2 and 1.7                S11 T24N R24E dry or embedded
                                         mi S OK Hwy 25               
                              Elm Creek 1.5 mi S OK Hwy 25                S10 T24N R24E site dry
                              Drowning Creek 3.2 mi NW Jay, OK Hwy 127                S15 T23N R23E site dry
                              Muskrat Hollow Creek 1.5 mi NW Jay                S22 T23N R23E site dry
                              Rattlesnake Creek 1.2 mi SE OK Hwy 10                S22 T22N R23E site dry
                              Rattlesnake Creek N Lake Eucha, W OK Hwy 10                S28 T22N R23E site dry

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        State Section, Comments
                   County        Township,
                              Location                Range

                              Brush Creek Spring                S26 T22N R23E 10
                              Brush Creek 2 mi NE OK Hwy 10                S24 T22N R23E several
                              spring trib to Beatty Creek                S30 T22N R24E 0
                              Earp Spring off Beatty Creek                S29 T22N R24E 1
                              Beatty Creek 3.5 mi E OK Hwy 10                S8   T21N R24E water deep
                              Cloud Creek at Old Cloud Creek                S8   T21N R24E 6
                                        Baptist Church Cemetary               
                              Teesquante Hollow 1 mi SW OK Hwy 10                S2   T21N R23E site dry
                              Dry Creek 3 mi W OK Hwy 10, Kenwood Rd                S10 T21N R23E 16
                              Saline Creek                S12 T21N R22E 1
                              Big Acorn Hollow 3.8 mi W Saline Creek                S10 T21N R22E 7
                              unnamed creek 4 mi W OK Hwy 10, Kenwood Rd                S11 T21N R22E site dry
                              Saline Creek 0.2 mi E Kenwood                S8   T21N R22E 0
                              4 sites on Sager Creek, 2 mi N OK Hwy 33                S19 T20N R26E heavily embedded
                              Dripping Springs park                S32 T20N R25E heavily embedded
                              Blue Spring Branch, Flint Creek                S30 T20N R25E site dry
                                         1 mi N OK Hwy 33               
                              Flint Creek 0.5 mi N OK Hwy 33                S24 T20N R24E 0
                              branch, Fivemile Hollow, OK Hwy 33                S21 T20N R24E site dry
                              Beatty Creek 1.5 mi S OK Hwy 20                S9   T22N R25E heavily embedded
                              Beatty Creek 1.4 mi S OK Hwy 20                S9   T22N R25E water deep, fast
                              6 tribs to Beatty Creek, 1 mi S OK Hwy 20                S7-9T22N R25E all sites dry & embedded
                              Brush Creek 1.5 mi N OK Hwy 20                S33 T23N R24E dry and graveled
                              Brush Creek 2 mi N OK Hwy 20                S26 T23N R24E site dry
                              Yellow Bird Hollow Creek 4 mi N OK Hwy 10                S15 T23N R24E site dry
                              Whitewater Creek 5.5 mi N OK Hwy 10                S10 T23N R24E 12
                              Pipe Springs, Spring River                S20 T19N R20E site dry
                              Calvern Hollow Creek                S21 T19N R20E site dry
                              Crutchfield Branch 2 mi W Locust                S19 T20N R20E heavily embedded
                                        Grove, 0.7 mi N OK Hwy 33               
                              Crutchfield Branch 1 mi W Locust                S19 T20N R20E heavily embedded
                                        Grove, 0.5 mi N OK Hwy 33               
                              Pipe Springs, 0.5 mi E jct OK Hwys 33 and 82                S23 T20N R20E 0
                              Snake Creek OK Hwy 82, 2 mi S Locust Grove                S34 T20N R20E 8
                              Spring Creek 2 mi W OK Hwy 82                S16 T19N R20E 14
                              Saline Creek 2 mi W Kenwood                S11 T21N R21E 0
                              Wickliffe Creek 1 mi N Lake Hudson                S19 T21N R21E site dry
                              unnamed creek 1.5 mi N Lake Hudson                S24 T21N R20E site dry
                              Chimney Rock Hollow 1 mi S Lake Hudson                S36 T21N R20E site dry
                              Council Creek at OK Hwy 10                S21 T26N R24E 5
                              Council Creek 0.3 mi N OK Hwy 10                S21 T26N R24E site dry
                              Sycamore Creek OK Hwy 10 bridge                S2   T26N R24E heavy recreation
                              Sycamore Creek 0.1 mi N Sycamore Chapel                S35 T27N R24E heavily graveled
                              Sycamore Creek 1.5 mi NE Sycamore Chapel                S25 T27N R24E heavily graveled
                              Sycamore Creek 3 mi NE Sycamore Chapel                S19 T27N R24E site dry
                                        0.3 mi S U.S. Hwy 60               
                              jct Brush and Roark Creeks                S31 T27N R25E embedded
                              Brush Creek at small trib                S31 T27N R25E 1
                              Mason Spring Valley 1 mi S U.S. Hwy 60                S20 T27N R25E site dry
                              Lost Creek on OK Hwy 10, 2 mi E jct                S22 T27N R24E site dry
                                         OK Hwy 10 and U.S. 60               
                              Shawnee Branch Spring River, 2 mi                S9   T27N R24E heavily embedded
                                        N U.S. Hwy 60, N of Wyandotte               
                              Coon Creek at AR Hwy 43 near Spavinaw Creek                S10 T19N R34W 18
                              Cherokee Creek at Cherokee City                S26 T19N R34W embedded
                              Backer Hollow Creek                S13 T19N R34W embedded
                              Spavinaw Creek 2 mi E AR Hwy 43                S31 T20N R33W site dry
                              Coon Creek, AR Hwy 43 bridge                S13 T19N R34W site dry, graveled
                              Coon Creek 1 mi E Bridge 996                S19 T19N R34W site dry, graveled

{Page 9}

        State Section, Comments
                   County        Township,
                              Location                Range

                              Columbia Hollow Creek                S1   T19N R34W site dry
                              Town Creek, AR Hwy 72, Maysville                S21 T22N R34W heavily embedded
                              Beatty Creek, AR Hwy 72, 0.75 mi N Maysville                S21 T22N R34W animal farms
                              Honey Creek 3 mi N AR Hwy 72                S25 T21N R34W embedded
                              Beatty Creek 0.5 mi N AR Hwy 72                S11 T20N R34W dry and embedded
                              Flint Creek 1 mi W AR Hwy 59                S16 T18N R33W 0
                              Chambers Hollow                S18 T17N R32W 4
                              Flint Creek at AR Hwy 59 bridge                S15 T18N R33W heavy recreation
                              unnamed creeks vic Martin Church                S1   T17N R33W site dry
                                        0.8 mi N AR Hwy 68               
                              0.7 mi SW Gallatin on section rd                S31 T18N R32W heavily embedded
                              Palmer Hollow Creek 2 mi NW Logan                S21 T18N R32W heavily embedded
                              spring E jct Palmer Hollow and                S27 T18N R32W site dry, embedded
                                        Galey Hollow Creeks               
                              Osage Creek 0.75 mi SW Logan                S33 T18N R32W 0
                              Little Flint Creek at AR Hwy 59, 0.25                S35 T19N R33W site embedded
                                        mi N jct AR Hwys 12 and 59               
                              Flint Creek at AR Hwy 12                S7   T18N R33W heavily embedded
                              East Flint Creek 1 mi E Springtown                S8   T18N R33W site dry
                              Wolf Creek 1.5 mi E Decatur, AR Hwy 102                S7   T19N R32W 0
                              Decatur Branch 1 mi S High School                S13 T19N R33W heavily embedded
                              S prong Spavinaw Creek                S4   T19N R32W 4
                              S prong Spavinaw Creek near Bethel Cemetary                S19 T20N R32W 1
                              Chalybeate Creek at Butterfield Station                S21 T21N R33W 1
                              Spavinaw Creek at AR Hwy 59                S27 T20N R33W 1
                              Butler Creek at AR Hwy 59                S15 T21N R33W deep, steep banks
                              Butler Creek vic Sulphur Springs park                S23 T21N R33W deep, steep banks
                              Butler Creek 0.25 mi S AR Hwy 59                S23 T21N R33W site dry
                              Butler Creek 2-3 mi E Sulphur Springs                S29-30T21N R32W site dry
                              Rocky Dell Hollow Creek, bridge 1007                S36 T21N R33W site dry
                              Rocky Dell Hollow Creek at AR Hwy 59                S36 T21N R33W site dry
                              Deer Creek 2 mi NE Sulphur Springs                S18 T21N R32W site dry
                              Mill Creek 4 mi NE Sulphur Springs                S16 T21N R32W site dry
                              Sager Creek at AR Hwy 204                S32 T18N R33W highly eutrophic
                              Leatherwood Creek U.S. Hwy 62 W Eureka Springs                S5   T20N R26W heavily graveled
                              Butler Creek 2. mi N U.S. Hwy 62                S14 T21N R27W site dry, graveled
                              Spider Creek at Land of Kong                S34 T21N R27W heavy development
                              Greathouse Spring 2.75 mi S AR Hwy 68                S20 T17N R30W heavily embedded
                                        on AR Hwy 112               
                              Clear Creek 2.8 mi S AR Hwy 68 on AR Hwy 112                S20 T17N R30W heavily embedded
                              Piebern Hollow, Roaring River SP                S27 T22N R27W site dry
                              Dry Hollow, Roaring River SP                S34 T22N R27W 0
                              Off Davis Hollow at Roaring River                S36 T22N R27W 11
                              Bear Creek 2 mi S U.S. Hwy 65                S36 T25N R22W 0
                              Reno Spring 2.1 mi S U.S. Hwy 65                S36 T25N R22W 0
                              Brush Creek S MO Hwy 90                S24 T21N R32W heavily embedded
                              Brush Creek N MO Hwy 90 on section rd                S13 T21N R32W site dry
                              Tanner Branch Little Sugar Creek                S12 T21N R32W site dry
                                        0.25 mi off U.S. Hwy 71               
                              Little Sugar Creek on section rd                S8   T21N R31W no gravel bars
                              Skagg's Hollow 1 mi upstream off                S5   T21N R31W site dry
                                        Little Sugar Creek               
                              Missouri Creek 4 mi S MO Hwy 90                S22 T21N R31W 2
                              Hickory Hollow, MO Hwy 90 0.5 mi W                S10 T23N R29W site dry
                                        Jct MO Hwys 90 and K               
                              Mill Creek, MO Hwy 90, 1 mi E Noel                S23 T21N R33W 1
                              Mill Creek, MO Hwy 90, 3 mi E Noel                S30 T21N R32W 7
                              Butler Creek 2 mi S Noel                S27 T21N R33W heavy recreation

{Page 10}

        State Section, Comments
                   County        Township,
                              Location                Range

                              Missouri Creek 2 mi S MO Hwy 90                S23 T21N R31W dry and embedded
                              Bear Hollow 3 mi S jct MO Hwys 90                S21 T21N R30W site dry
                                        and E, and 0.5 mi W MO Hwy E               
                              Bentonville Hollow, MO Hwy E 0.9 mi                S9   T21N R30W site dry
                                        N jct MO Hwys E and 90               
                              Bentonville and Rose Spring Hollows                S4   T21N R30W muddy water
                                        1.5 mi N MO Hwys E and 90, on E               
                              Bentonville Hollow 2.1 mi N jct                S33 T22N R30W site dry
                                        MO Hwys E and 90, on E               
                              Trent Creek at MO Hwy 90                S36 T22N R30W heavily graveled
                              Mike's Creek 4 mi S jct MO Hwys 76 and U, on U                S20 T23N R29W site dry
                              Mike's Creek on MO Hwy U, 4.5 mi S                S29 T23N R29W 0
                                        jct MO Hwys 76 and U               
                              Star Hollow off MO Hwy U, 6.5 mi S                S6   T22N R29W site dry
                                        jct MO Hwys 76 and U               
                              Sugar Camp Hollow off MO Hwy U, 7.5                S12 T22N R30W site dry
                                        mi S jct MO Hwys 76 and U               
                              Buffalo Creek at MO Hwy 43                S4   T22N R34W 0
                              Buffalo Creek 2 mi upstream of MO Hwy 43                S26 T26N R34W 4
                              trib to Buffalo Creek 3 mi upstream MO Hwy 43                S23 T26N R34W heavily embedded
                              Buffalo Creek 4 mi upstream of MO Hwy 43                S14 T26N R34W heavily embedded
                              Carney Spring 1.5 mi S MO Hwy 248                S3   T24N R25W 0
                              Carney Creek 3.5 mi S MO Hwy 248                S15 T24N R25W deep, fast water
                              Carney Creek 4.25 mi S MO Hwy 248                S27 T24N R25W heavily embedded
                              Horse Creek 1.5 mi N MO Hwy 44                S27 T25N R23W site dry
                              Horse Creek 1.75 mi N MO Hwy 44                S28 T25N R23W site dry
                              Pine Run 1 mi W Galena on MO Hwy 13                S1   T24N R24W heavily embedded
                              Pine Run N of Galena on MO Hwy 44                S31 T25N R23W site dry
                              Pine Run 1.5 mi W Galena on MO Hwy 13                S31 T25N R24W heavily embedded
                                        near jct MO Hwy AA               
                              Hurricane Creek 3.25 mi S U.S. Hwy 65                S2   T24N R22W heavily embedded
                              West Fork Bear Creek, 5.25 mi S U.S. Hwy 65                S14 T24N R22W site dry
                              Dry Branch Bear Creek, 5.75 mi S U.S. Hwy 65                S13 T24N R22W site dry