The Apache Indians. By Frank C. Lockwood. (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1938. xvi+348pp. Illustrations and map. $3.50.)
At the time of the Spanish conquest of the Southwest the Apache Indians were a warlike tribe living in parts of what are now the states of Arizona and New Mexico, and northern Sonora and Chihuahua.
The story of the hardy, mobile Apaches who figured so significantly in the struggle for the Southwest, has been told in interesting fashion. In an arrangement purely chronological, the author opens the narrative of the Apaches with their brief contacts with the Spanish conquistadores and missionaries. Then follow the Spanish attempts at colonization of the Apache country, a period which is replete with conflicts between the two races. The era of Mexican control of the Southwest sees little improvement in the relations with these desert Ishmaels. And the subsequent attempts of the Americans to make wards out of the Apaches is a sad story of their recurring wrath and rebellion. The outbreak of the Civil War meant the abandonment of this portion of the Indian country; and the consequence was the loss of the little gain that had been made towards a peaceful period of Indian affairs. With the inauguration of President Grant's "Peace Policy" towards the Indians conditions on the Apache frontier saw a definite improvement. And the subsequent fifty years were ones of peace. The book concludes with the author's outlook for the future of the Apaches.
Doctor Lockwood, until his death last year, was a professor and dean at the University of Arizona, in the heart of the old Apache country. The author's great interest in the social condition of the Indians led him into their native haunts and made him the friend and confidant of many of them. There is evidence of his many interviews with Apache eyewitnesses of historic encounters with the whites. Much is told of the Indians' way of
living, their food, dress, dwelling places, moral code, social customs, and tribal organization. The writer's long study of the Indian problem and his personal association with the Indians explain his sympathetic understanding of their unpredictable manner. Doctor Lockwood has not hesitated to point out examples of white greed, stupidity, and corruption among petty officials who were largely responsible for the intermittent difficulties with the Apaches. In this respect the author follows the writings of Paul I. Wellman, notably in the latter's Death in the Desert, which covers the same period and area but is not limited to the Apache tribe.
The book is interestingly written in an informal style. Though designed primarily for the general reader, the volume is scholarly and comprehensive. The field of printed sources seems well covered; and there are frequent referencs to unpublished accounts and official manuscript records of the government. A short bibliography appears at the end of each chapter. The book is attractively bound and printed; it is adequately illustrated with many rare photographs from the files of the United States Signal Corps. A sketch of the Apache country makes it easy to locate the scenes of the principal events. An index increases the value of the volume as a reference work.
This is a distinct contribution to the history of the American Southwest, an excellent tribal history of the Apaches.
Gaston L. Litton
The National Archives
Lord Macaulay, Victorian Liberal. By Richard Croom Beatty. (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1938.—$3.00.)
Professor Beatty contrives to leave a pleasing impression on his reader despite some personal bias and his proneness to pass harsh judgments. His scholarship is sound; his style has clarity and distinction. There is a judicious blending of narrative and discussion, of biography and exposition, of history and literary criticism and the author's lightness of touch appeals to the general reader.
The general effect of the book is somewhat marred by the intrusion of the personal point of view which lends it at times the character of a polemic. The writer is at some pains at the outset to place Macaulay in his social and political setting and to identify him as a liberal. But since the writer apparently regards himself as a "liberal," he resents the preemption of this term by the liberal school of the nineteenth century. But after all, the English liberals were the first in the field and logically it seems sounder to apply the term to the philosophy of individual freedom and laissez-faire rather than to those who advocate government intervention in the economic and social life of society, no matter how high the motives that inspire this course. In such a scheme of things property naturally occupies a position of paramount importance. It is assumed to be the reward of individual effort; property carries the burden of taxation; hence political power should go with it. This was almost the inevitable accompaniment of the industrial revolution. The abandonment of this principle of the close association of power with property seems now to be equally inevitable but obviously exposes us to the risk of exploiting the propertied classes for the benefit of the unpropertied, which looks dangerously like killing the goose that laid the golden egg.
In his treatment of Macaulay as a writer Professor Beatty is on firmer ground. Without possessing great originality, Macaulay had at his command a wealth of literary allusions and a remarkable facility of expression. But as he himself admitted, he was denied the gifts of a literary critic and his reviews were marked by strong personal prejudice. But his literary fame rests largely on his History of England. This was essentially a picture of the revolution of 1688 as seen through the eyes of a Whig but despite its strong partisanship, it is great literature and as literature will stand the test of time.
The writer has allowed a number of slips. For instance on p. 139 he has used the word "chairman" apparently in referring to the Speaker of the House of Commons. A want of careful judgment has led him into too ready an acceptance of the long-current belief in the innocence of Queen Caroline. If he had read As-
-pinall's Letters of King George IV, he would not have made light of the "outrageous charges of immorality against her."
University of Oklahoma S. R. Tompkins
Tarnished Warrior: Major-General James Wilkinson. By James Ripley Jacobs. (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1938. 380 pp. Maps, illustrations, and bibliography. $3.50.)
During his life General Wilkinson was usually demanding courts of inquiry. He always got them, and they always acquitted him. His death did not end his importunities. Since that time he has demanded an adequate biography. It seems that he now has one, but it does not give him the same kind treatment.
Written by a retired Major of the U. S. Army, Tarnished Warrior is a meticulous piece of work. It is so carefully documented by the sources that one wonders if the author is not a highly trained historian. The bibliography not only lists thirty-two libraries yielding letters or other unprinted source material on Wilkinson, but also twenty-seven contemporary newspapers, and about seven pages of printed source and secondary books. Major Jacobs seems to have used most of the material there is in the country on his subject. He tells his story with careful footnote references to the sources.
Such a careful bit of work could easily be dull. Instead Major Jacobs' style is always interesting and sometimes delightful. Adroit sentences sprinkle the pages, and the story moves with a rapidity that reminds one of a historical novel. One might fear that the author would over-emphasize the military side of Wilkinson's career. There naturally is much of battles and campaigns, since Wilkinson was a military man, but this element, in this reviewer's opinion, is not over-emphasized and is often used to reveal the character of those discussed. In addition there are numerous maps and about a dozen contemporary pictures of people or scenes.
Able, vigorous, of a good family, and very ambitious, Wil-
kinson was equipped to go to the top. The absence of a sense of true honor and the fatal desire to get things the easy way led to his ruin after he reached that top. He used everyone possible for his own advantage, played both sides against the middle, and was lucky enough never really to get caught to his ruin. "His was an artful program, altogether unhampered by any ethical idea."
Wilkinson's life was a full one. He studied medicine, served in the Revolution, moved to the West to sell calicos and cross-cut saws and speculate in land, became a Spanish pensioner and Kentucky politician, treated with and fought the Indians, became Governor of Louisiana territory, was involved with Burr, fought in the War of 1812, ran a southern plantation, and became a self-appointed delegate to Mexico, where he died in 1825. He occupies the peculiar position of a traitor who did not injure this country, except by his own incapacity.
Some points deserve detailed attention. Oklahomans will wonder if any new light is thrown upon the motives of Wilkinson's sending Pike on his tour of discovery. Major Jacobs presents no new evidence, but suggests the profit of the fur trade, the military advantage of the knowledge of a route to Santa Fe, and the stirring up of Spanish fears as motives.
One suggestion which could be further developed is that Wilkinson originated hopes of a western empire in Burr's mind, and that he used Burr as a tool, knowing that he could jump both ways and always be on the winning side.
Those interested in Indian dealings may wish that this element of Wilkinson's life were treated more fully. Some of the General's observations on Indians are quoted and make it clear that he had a sharp eye and a good head on such matters. They are as true today as they were then.
Bacone College Marc Jack Smith