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Chronicles of Oklahoma
Volume 16, No. 3
September, 1938

Sister M. Ursula.

Page 346


Since the passing of the American Frontier, Catholic Church historians have begun to study and evaluate the social, religious, and intellectual part played by the Catholic Church in the development of the Far West in the nineteenth century. One region worthy of special study is the territory now embraced within the present state of Oklahoma, which has not been given adequate historical treatment.1 It is the purpose of this bibliography to reveal the extensive and hitherto unexplored and unused sources for the study of this significant chapter in the history of the Catholic Church on the American Frontier.



Anadarko, Oklahoma.

The files of Father Aloysius Hitta, O.S.B., Superintendent of Saint Patrick's Mission, contain letters from Mother Katherine Drexel, newspaper clippings that throw light on the past history of the mission; printed articles that Father Hitta has contributed to the Indian Sentinel and The Oklahoma Indian School Magazine; the Ms. copy of Bishop Martin Marty's letter to Charles E. Adams, U. S. Indian Agent at the Kiowa and Comanche Agency, authorizing Reverend Isidore Ricklin to select the quarter section for a mission; a letter from the Department of the Interior granting to the

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Catholic Bureau of Indian Missions the quarter section selected and the authority to cut timber and use stone from the same land. There are likewise reports of attendance, financial statements, and other such data. Of less historical value, but interesting nevertheless is A Boy's Dream of the Great Manito by Reverend Father Ildephonse, O.S.B., a fascinating Indian legend whose setting is Saint Patrick's, the time 1901, and the central figure Reverend Father Hitta who has been stationed at the Mission for the past thirty-seven years.

Anadarko, Oklahoma.

The Record kept by the Sisters of the Third Order of Saint Francis contains an account of Saint Patrick's Mission since the arrival of the first group of Sisters on October 1, 1892. It lists those who have since that date been located at the Mission, incidents connected with the daily life of the school, the number of pupils enrolled, visits, and other items of local history.

Similar material was found at Chickasha and Purcell where members of the same religious order have charge of the mission school.

Belgium, Louvain.

Through the kindness of Father Stephen Leven, Vice-rector of the American College, use was made of many interesting letters from a file containing over nine hundred, written to the rectors of the American college by priests, more than two score of whom were working in Indian Territory from 1891-1907. From The Little Star of the Black Belt, Lynchburg, Virginia, edited by Reverend J. Anciaux, later pastor of Langston, Indian Territory, much of the story of the Church and school for Negroes at that place was obtained. Clippings from The Living Age, a non-Catholic magazine for the colored race, published at Langston was also used. From the American College Bulletin, Vols. I to VII a list of the Alumni in the Vicar-Apostolic may be found, the dates and incidents written from the Indian Territory. These are rich sources of Church history in Oklahoma, and often give an insight

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into conditions that could not be found elsewhere.

Chicago, Illinois.

The Newberry library contains an appreciable amount of printed material that is of interest in this study. It can for the most part be found in the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions in Washington.

Cornwells Heights, Pennsylvania.

In Saint Elizabeth Convent, the Motherhouse of the Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament, there are letters and petitions of the Indians in the Territory written to Reverend Mother Katherine Drexel, to the Benedictine Fathers, to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs and to Reverend Father Stephan, then head of the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions. There is also a letter from Father W. H. Ketcham to the Franciscan Sisters. A list of Churches and Schools erected and equipped by Mother Katherine Drexel shows the extent of her generous donations for schools and churches for the Indians and for the negroes in Indian Territory. A Prospectus of Saint John's Boarding School, Gray Horse, Oklahoma, under the direction of the Christian Schools furnished information on the object, courses, and general regulations of this school when it passed from the control of the Franciscan Sisters. Newspaper clippings and photographs of the Indian schools in the course of their erection are also to be found in these files.

Fort Smith, Arkansas.

In Saint Patrick's Church adjoining Saint Ann's Academy, may be found the Register of Marriages for Fort Smith and the Missions attached thereto 1845-1897: The Baptismal Register July 30, 1884 to October 1869, also Registerum Baptism (sic) 1857-1900 signed by Fathers Lawrence and Michael Smythe. These records are not only of historical value to one writing on early church history in the diocese of Arkansas, of which Indian Territory was then a part, but for one interested in the social conditions and political events of the period. Not only are the names and dates of persons baptized recorded, but in the margin numerous comments have been made. During the Civil War the church was occupied

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by Federal troops and the records in some places mutilated by the northern troops. When recovered after the conflict, the partial erasure of Yankee drawings and the caustic comments inserted by the pastor in the margin of the Baptismal Records gave strong evidence of his southern sympathies. Baptism of slaves, prisoners who were condemned to be executed and who were visited by the good Sisters of Mercy, bits of local history, the time of departure and return from missionary trips to the Indian Territory make these early records of more than passing historical worth. Without access to them it would have been impossible to chronicle fully the work of the Catholic Church in Indian Territory prior to the Civil War.

France, Pierre-qui Vire.

The richest depository of primary material is the monastery of Pierre-qui Vire. It was from here the first Benedictine foundation was made in the south, on the Isle of Good Hope near Savannah, Georgia. Only two survived the yellow fever epidemic in 1874 and these joined Father Robot at Sacred Heart Indian Territory, where he had made a second foundation. The original letters and reports of Father Robot, Father Ignatius jean and other Benedictines at Sacred Heart to the Abbot of Pierre-qui Vire are to be found in the archives of the monastery. A lengthy manuscript describes Father Robot's trip to America and his near death from ship wreck. Though suppressed by the French government in 1880, the monastery is again in the hands of the Benedictines. Father Paul is the present librarian and archivist.

Guthrie, Oklahoma.

In the archives of the Benedictine Sisters at Saint Joseph Convent are preserved the Community Records dating back to 1889, the year of their coming to the Territory. Among these are the Scriptorium, a record of work of the community, its growth in members, material development, and incidents connected with its general history. There is a priceless manuscript copy of the Memoirs of Sister Anselma, begun at Carolton, Pennsylvania, in October, 1819. It is the story of the foundation in Creston,

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Iowa; its trials, vicissitudes, new members, and the final removal of the Motherhouse to Guthrie. In addition to these there are lists of schools under the care of the Benedictine Sisters, letters, reports, deeds, and various other documents of historical value. As is the case with practically all the institutions in Oklahoma, the manuscript material concerning their development since statehood is far greater than that concerning their history during Territorial days.

Indiana, South Bend.

The valuable archives of Notre Dame University contain only one or two manuscripts of interest to this story. The newspaper files, however, are particularly rich. Among those consulted was the Freeman's Journal, a collection of singular importance.

Louisville, Kentucky.

In the extensive newspaper collection of Nazareth Convent several printed articles were found, particularly those that referred to Bishop Meerschaert's appeal for funds for the Indian Territory. A Scrap Book with clippings of the yellow fever epidemic in 1876 was of especial help since it was that disease that practically destroyed the Benedictine community on the Isle of Hope, near Savannah. The two survivors joined the Benedictines in Indian Territory, one of whom later became Abbot.

Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

The most valuable document in the Chancery Office is the private Diary of Bishop Meerschaert. The more important events beginning in 1889 and extending to the time of his death in 1924 were jotted down on the blank pages of an Ordo. Here is recorded, in some twenty or more of these books, a short autobiography, his appointments before coming to the Territory, his appointment as Vicar Apostolic and the events connected with his consecration, departure, and reception in Guthrie. From 1891 there is kept a consistent, sometimes daily account of the Bishop's activities; his appointments, ordinations, confirmations, lectures, trips in the Territory, in the United States, and in Europe, all these are to be found on

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pages where household accounts, salaries paid, and items connected with his daily life are likewise listed. That the busy Bishop had little time for details is evidenced by the brevity of most of the entries. Abbreviations are common, spelling often phonetic, but the Diary as a whole takes on the nature of a fast moving narrative.

Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

A wealth of statistical material is to be found in the archives of the Oklahoma Historical Society. Among the thousands of documents that concerned the history of the Five Civilized Tribes and the Plains groups were found reports, contracts, applications, as well as much correspondence between the superintendents at Sacred Heart, Anadarko, Chickasha, and Purcell concerning the schools over which they had charge. The quarterly reports with a list of teachers employed, students enrolled, and the produce of field and orchard gave evidence of the general progress of the schools. These manuscripts may be found in the files of each tribe under the general heading of Schools. Letters from the pupils of the Catholic Indian Mission Schools to the Indian Agent were found in the files of the Sac and Fox as well as those of the Pottawatomie.

Pawhuska, Oklahoma.

At the Osage Indian Agency is preserved the greatest collection of tribal records within the state. Among the manuscripts in the Miscellaneous Correspondence file were two letters of Father Shoemakers; the list of pupils who enrolled at Saint Louis School the first year; the first report of Mother Mary De Sales who was in charge of the school; a number of letters from the Osage Indian Agent to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs regarding the two Catholic Mission schools; a series of letters between the Agent and Commissioner concerning the request of Father Edward Van Waeberghe for land for Church purposes; vouchers, petitions of the Osage Council for additional school funds; complaints and an occasional letter from a school child or its parents. The Gibson File contains much worthwhile material including:

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A Report of Inspector Edward Kemble regarding the repeated request of the Osages for Catholic missionaries; Osage petition to Ewing dated 1874; petition against Catholic teachers, 1875, signed by nine Osages; excerpts from eastern newspaper and letters from Agent Gibson to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Of particular interest, though of doubtful historical value, is the stenographic report regarding historical data of the first Catholic Church. This formed the proceedings of a meeting held in the parish hall May 23, 1937. At this time questions were asked some of the old settlers and their answers recorded in an effort to preserve some of the past history of the Catholic beginnings in Pawhuska. Because of the scholarly interest of Miss Lillian Mathews, the curator of Osage Agency, in things pertaining to Osage history many interesting documents have been brought to light during the past few years and made available to students of history.
Pawhuska, Oklahoma.

At Saint Louis School the Sisters of Loretta have a number of School Registers that give the attendance of Indian children from 1889-1907. There may also be found a few statements of receipts and expenditures and other items of minor importance.
Perry, Oklahoma.

In the private files of Father Urban de Hasque, pastor of Saint Rose of Lima Church, are documents of prime value regarding the Church in Oklahoma. My indebtedness to him lies in his generously allowing me the use of his lists of Oklahoma priests, churches, parishes, transfers, etc.; of his attractive pictorial history of Oklahoma churches; of notes taken from a complete file of Les Missions Catholiques; of copies of his own personal manuscripts as well as copies of manuscripts which he made from the archives of the Benedictine Fathers at Pierre-qui-Vire, France. No one could write the history of the Church in Oklahoma without finding much of his basic material in these files.

Saint Louis, Missouri.

A treasure house of Osage history is found in the Writings of Father Paul Mary Ponziglione, S.J., whose thirty-eight years of service (1852-1890) among the Osages, in both Kansas and

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Indian Territory, has been preserved in a collection of manuscripts in the archives of the Missouri Province of the Society of Jesus, Saint Louis University. These consist, in part, in the Annales Missiones S. Francesci de Heronymo a Patribus Societatis jesu institutae apud Indos Americae Septentrionalis Osageos dictos compiled in three note books; the Annales which give a list of priests who worked among the Osages from 1827 to 1889 and a list giving the dates and localities of missionary stations begun by the Jesuits. Sixteen of these stations were within what is now the present state of Oklahoma. More important, however, to this study were the Western Missions Journal, 10 Volumes. Here are recorded the missionary activities of Father Ponziglione between 1867 and 1890. No less interesting than the history are the journals themselves. The volumes are each an average five cent note book in which Father Ponziglione has written in legible English a detailed account not only of his trips among the Osages and other tribes but also of his work among the white settlers, and visits to the army posts and mining camps. The writings in the Osage language include A Collection of Epistles and Gospels for the Sundays and Holy Days; an Osage Dictionary and Hymn Book; Instruction on the Christian Doctrine for the teaching of the Osage Indians residing on the Neosho and Verdigres, State of Kansas, North America. From this collection of manuscripts one catches a glimpse of a kindly man of deep spirituality, a historian of natural bent and careful schorlarship. The Jesuits in the Kaw Valley, a typewritten manuscript by Father John F. O'Connor, S.J., was used in this study for the story of Sugar Creek mission. It was from this mission that Jesuit missionaries made their first missionary trips into Indian Territory. It is a work based almost wholly on source material. A copy of this is available at Saint Louis University.

Sacred Heart, Oklahoma.

In the archives of the Benedictine Fathers of Sacred Heart Priory was found the most important of all the materials for this study. Of all the manuscripts here the Annals of Sacred Heart Mission 1876-1907 are the most valuable. Here are recorded the coming of the first co-laborers of Father Robot; the incidents con-

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nected with the erection of Sacred Heart Monastery, the missionary trips among the various Indian tribes; the growth and development of the new foundation; the erection of the novitiate; ordinations, deaths, and every event of importance connected with the Benedictine Fathers. From it too, may be gathered the intimate side of the life in the monastery; the hardships of a life under the rule of primitive observance; amusing incidents, days of special festivities; the occasions when distinguished visitors were welcome guests, their presence affording much joy to the religious. Every appointment made by the Prefects Apostolic, new churches dedicated, schools opened, records of retreats, missions, baptisms—all these are only a part of the historic matter preserved in these Community reports. Other manuscripts include a record of Churches Built and Missions Established by the Benedictine Fathers. This gives the year, the place, and the name of the priest through whose efforts the new churches were erected. Records of Priests Educated at Sacred Heart, both secular and religious, who were also ordained at Sacred Heart. Lists of the deceased members of the community were helpful in reckoning the years of service of the Fathers. Two other manuscripts deserve special mention. Reminiscences and Memoirs of Brother John Laracy gives an intimate picture of this kindly lay brother, who is yet living today. Arriving in the Territory in 1879 he has crowded into pages of his memoirs a vivid picture of the Pottawatomie country as seen by one from New England. Recollections of a Missionary Trip 1885, by Reverend Hilary Cassal is a very lengthy document that tells of a missionary trip made in the western part of Indian Territory and extending from the first of October until the end of the month. Its historical value is to be found in the persons, places, and circumstances connected with the trip. The files, likewise, contain many other valuable bits of history; albums of pictures of the Fathers, students, activities incident to the life of the Monastery and school. The pleasure of collecting notes from these manuscripts was made more interesting by conversations with Father Leo who came to the Territory in 1888, and Father Jerome who is archivist at Sacred Heart.

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Shawnee, Oklahoma.

The files of the Benedictine Fathers at Saint Gregory's Abbey contain some material that concerns the history of the Church in the Territory, though they are much richer in matter that pertains to the time after statehood. Among the manuscripts is a file of Correspondence between the Benedictine Fathers and the Vicar Apostolic. Of particular value was a lengthy Report in the handwriting of Father Robot giving an account of the state of the Prefecture Apostolic in 1880. It is written in French and consists of answers, for the most part in detail, to sixty-four questions. They are concerned with the circumstances under which the Benedictines came to the Indian Territory, the condition of the country, the number of priests, the needs of the missions, financial conditions, and other questions concerning the spiritual life of the monastery. Papal documents, deeds, blue prints, financial reports, and a very few letters are other sources of information concerning the Church in the Territory that may be found in these files.
Washington, D. C.

The Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions. This agency was established in 1874 and is an institution through which the affairs of the Indian missions are transacted with the United States Indian Office. The Bureau was the direct result of President Grant's "Indian Peace Policy" of December, 1870, in which he determined to give the agencies to such religious denominations as had before established missionaries among the Indians. In 1870 there were seventy-two Indian agencies, and in thirty-eight of these Catholic missionaries had been the first to establish themselves. Despite the fact, only eight were assigned to the Catholic Church. This caused 80,000 Catholic Indians to pass from Catholic influence to Protestant control.

At the instigation of the bishops in whose jurisdiction there were Indians, Archbishop Boyley, on January 2, 1874, appointed General Charles Ewing, Catholic Commissioner, and Reverend Felix Barotti, Treasurer. On June 14, 1881, the Bureau was incorporated under the general corporation laws of the United States. Father Branillet died in 1884, and Reverend J. A. Stephan was

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appointed to succeed him. Ten years later the old organization was superseded by a new corporation chartered in perpetuity by an Act of the General Assembly of Maryland. The Corporate title is "The Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions." Father Stephan was director until his death in 1901 and was succeeded by Father Willard Ketcham, the first priest ordained by Bishop Meerschaert.

Since all the Catholic Indian Schools in Oklahoma and Indian Territory were connected with the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions, the files of this institution hold a vast amount of documentary material. The files are arranged chronologically and the material concerning the schools is found under date of their establishment. The manuscripts include letters of Bishop Meerschaert; correspondence and reports from the Benedictine Fathers and Sisters in charge of the various Indian schools; letters from parents, students, soldiers at the army posts and frequently letters from civilians. Of particular interest were the petitions of the Osages for missionaries and religious teachers; of their difficulties with the Indian agent and affairs at the Osage agency. No other single depository contains so great an amount of manuscript material pertinent to the organization and development of Indian schools in Oklahoma, than can be found in the files of the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions. Washington, D. C.

In the manuscript collection of Georgetown University may be found Father Ponziglione's Osage Prayer Book and Short Catechism, and Osage Hymns with English translations.

Washington, D. C.

In the files of the Indian Office may be found the incoming correspondence from the Indian Superintendents, the missionaries, agents, and oftentimes from the Indians themselves. The material is for the most part yet unclassified and is to be found in bundles under the name of the Indian Tribe. The Division of Maps has several hundred of Oklahoma, ranging in date from as early as 1835. The most useful of these, however, appear in "Indian Land Cessions in the United States," compiled by Charles C. Royce, published in the Eighteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Eth-

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nology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1896-97, Washington 1899, Part 2.


"Acta Sanctae Sedis." In Compendium opportune redacta et illustratra studio et cura. Josephi Pennacchi et Victorii Piazzesi Rome, Vol. IX, 425-426. 1885 (1861-1885) Published privately, official after 1904.

American College Bulletin. Louvain, Belgium, 1903-1907.

The files of this quarterly publication contain many items of value to the Indian Territory. In the seven volumes between 1903-1907 practically every one has some articles in reference to the Church or the priests working in the Territory. The names, dates of ordination, departures, visits, reprints of letters written from the Indian Territory to the American College, deaths, parish assignments are a few of the items recorded. It represents one source of information concerning the work of the secular clergy of which scant record has been preserved. Besides Right Reverend Bishop Meerschaert and the Very Reverend Gustave Depreitere, Vicar General, the American College sent to Indian Territory twenty-three priests between 1893-1907, all of whom are mentioned in the American College Bulletin.

Annals de la Propagation de la Foi. (Recueil Periodique des lettres des Eveques et des missionaries des Missions des deux mondes, et de tous les documents relatifs sux missions et a l'oeuvre de la propagation de la foi.) 72 Vols., Lyons and Paris, 1823-1900.

The first volume records the visit of the Osage chiefs to Bishop Du Bourg. Volume 69 gave an account of the death of Father Robot, and from volumes 49 to 80 it was possible to know the contributions made to the Indian Territory both under the Prefecture and during the Vicariate.

Annals of the Catholic Indian Missions of America. Washington, 1877.

This series of publications by the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions contained a vast amount of material concerning the Indian

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Territory, most of which can be obtained from the Indian Advocate. One issue dated January 6, 1877, contained a lengthy letter from Father Robot shortly after his arrival at Atoka, Indian Territory. It describes a trip covering a distance of 1065 miles that he made among the Indian tribes. Other incidents mentioned include the erection of the Prefecture, the proposed location of a mission school, and other matters of particular interest to the Indian Territory.

Atoka Champion. Atoka Indian Territory, February 23, 1884.
Reference to Brother Dominic hauling supplies to Sacred Heart from Atoka, a distance of seventy miles.

Atoka Independent. Atoka Indian Territory, March 1, 1877.
July 27, 1877, August 23, 1878.
Reference to trips made by Father Robot among the Indian tribes.

Atoka Vindicator. Atoka, Indian Territory, January 26, March 1, April 12, April 19, December 13, 1876. Chronicles the services at the Catholic church in Atoka, the opening of school, and trips made by Father Robot to the military forts and Indian reserves.

Ave Marie. Notre Dame, Indiana, Janary 20, 1877.
Supports and approves Mr. McMaster's plan for helping Father Robot in Indian Territory.

Barney, Ralph A., Laws Relating to the Osage Tribe of Indians, May 18, 1824 to March 2, 1929. Washington, 1929.
Consists of Acts of Congress relating to Osage affairs. It lists the Appropriation Acts of the Interior Department that has particular reference to the Osage. Washington, 1929.

Carroll, Mary Theresa Austin, Leaves from the Annals of the Sisters of Mercy, 4 volumes, New York, 1889.
Contains sketches of the Order in South America, Central America, and the United States. Chapters XLIII and LX tell of the foundation in Arkansas with several interesting references to Indian Territory.

Catholic Advocate. New York, January 30, 1879, Vol. X. No. 34.
In an article entitled "The Indian's Need," a plea is made for a more humane and just treatment of the Indian. It speaks of the

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docility and peacefulness of the Indian when treated with ordinary kindness, and cites the Catholic Indian Missions as the most successful means of Christianizing and civilizing the Red men. Pleading for the establishment of peaceful and desirable relations with the Indians, the article concludes that it is the interest of all, Catholic and non-Catholic, that the religious be sustained in their work, given the necessary means and encouraged with the approval and support of the people.

Catholic Church in the United States of America, 2 volumes, New York, 1908.

Volume I is devoted to the Religious Communities in the United States. The original plan was to create a living portrayal of Catholic progress and development in the United States. It was to be "a great album, a thank offering" in honor of the golden jubilee of Pope Pius X. The articles are scholarly, exact and are in almost every case signed. The article on the Benedictine Fathers in Oklahoma, signed by Abbot Murphy, traces briefly the story of Sacred Heart Mission from 1877 to 1907. The table of statistics covering three decades was of special value.

Catholic Home. Oklahoma City, September 8, 1923. This paper was the successor to the Orphan's Record and remained the diocesan organ until replaced by the Southwest Courier. This particular issue is known as the Thirty-Second Anniversary Number issued in honor of Right Reverend Theophile Meerschaert's thirty-two years of faithful labor in the Diocese of Oklahoma. Its historical value lies in the "Account of Right Reverend Bishop Meerschaert's Activities in the Diocese of Oklahoma as taken from his Private Diary." The articles are arranged chronologically from 1889 to 1921. February 23, March 1, 1924 numbers contain incidents connected with the death of Bishop Meerschaert and with the passing of the venerable prelate. A sketch of his life, the highlights of his long career and a lengthy editorial are the distinctive features of these issues.

Catholic Telegraph, Cincinnati, October 24, 1901. Volume 23 Number 16.

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Contains an appeal of Bishop Meerschaert for help in his labor among the Indians. It gives an account of the Vicariate in 1891 and tells of the growth that has taken place during the past ten years.

Chicago Times, February 28, 1878. "Injustice to Catholics," Refers to the Indian Mission Schools.

Chimes. A Benedictine Quarterly Review published at Buckfast Abbey 11 (July, 1922) No. 7.
This Special Number is devoted to the past history of Buckfast Abbey; to its restoration in 1882 by the Benedictines of Pierre-qui-Vire. It likewise records the death of Rt. Rev. Abbot Natter, O.S.B., August 4, 1906, when the ship Sirio sank near the coast of Spain. A likeness of Father Thomas Duperon, first Abbot of Sacred Heart, Indian Territory, as first Superior of the restored Buckfast, as well as many pictures of the ancient Abbey lend interest to the story.

Daily Oklahoman, March 15, 1936. "Memoirs of Bishop Meerschaert" by Noel Houston is typically journalistic. Occupying a full page in the Sunday edition the article makes use of liberal quotations from the Bishop's Diary.

Dunn, John E., Memorial to Very Reverend Lawrence Smyth. Fort Smith, 1900. 81pp.

Ex. Doc., No. 6, Senate, 44th Congress, 1st Sess., December 17, 1875.
This gives an investigation of the affairs of the Osage Indian Agency with an abstract of the evidence and charges against the Indian Agent. Several references are given to his interference with petitions for Catholic schools and missionaries.

Graves, W. W., Annals of Osage Missions, Saint Paul, Kansas, 1935.
The material contained in the publication of 490 pages has been collected "from hundreds of sources including personal knowledge, interviews, books, pamphlets, manuscripts, old letters and newspapers." The items are arranged chronologically and are concerned with industry, religion, politices, social life, Indian troubles, and countless other topics connected with the life at Osage Mission.

Guy, Reverend F. S., The Catholic Church in Arkansas (1541-43). Washington, 1932. Monograph in the Catholic University Library, 57 pp.

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Hasque, Very Reverend Urban de, Saint Patrick's Indian Mission of Anadarko, Oklahoma, 1891-1915, n. d.

This historical sketch written by the former chancellor of the diocese was one of several publications of Saint Joseph's Orphanage dealing with the history of the Church in Oklahoma. The pamphlet contains twenty-six pages.

Historical Sketch. Quarter Century's Incipience, Growth and Development of the Holy Family Parish, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 1899-1924.

The contents of this work is indicated by the sub-title. In the two hundred pages written from the parish records one is able to see the remarkable development of the parish whose frame church in 1899 measured only 30x50 feet and is a quarter century later replaced by a million dollar edifice, Holy Family Co-Cathedral, one of the most beautiful edifices in the Southwest. Illustrations of the old church and school, pictures of all the pastors who have been appointed to the parish, various societies, lists of those who helped to finance the new church and a list of the parishioners makes this Silver Jubilee number a record of no small value.

House Ex. Docs., No. 131, 41, Cong. 3rd Sess., Vol. XII February 11, 1871. Serial No. 1460. Communication to obtain the consent of the Osages to move to Indian Territory.

House Ex. Docs., No. 152, 42, Cong., 2nd Sess., Vol. X, February 17, 1872. Serial No. 1513. Appropriation for settlement, subsistence, and support of Osages.

House Ex. Docs., No. 146, 42 Cong., 2nd Sess., Vol. X, February 15, 1872. Serial No. 1512. Expenses necessary for the removal of the Osages.

House Ex. Docs., No. 142, 42 Cong., 3rd Sess., Vol. VIII, January 20, 1873. Serial No. 1566. Estimate on appropriations to pay Osages annual interest of 5% on proceeds of sales of Osage trust and diminished reserve lands.

House Ex. Docs., No. 183, 42 Cong. 3rd Sess., Vol. IX, February 4, 1873. Serial No. 1567. Amendment to appropriation

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bill for removal of Great and Little Osages from Kansas in accordance with treaty.

House Misc. Docs., No. 49, 40th Con., 3rd Sess., February 15, 1869. Serial No. 1385. This is a protest against the ratification of the treaty with the Great and Little Osages.

Indian Advocate. Sacred Heart, Indian Territory, 1888-1910, 22 volumes.

The apostolate of the press was not neglected by the Benedictine Fathers. Begun by the second Prefect Apostolic, this quarterly has the distinction of being the first Catholic publication in the Territory. It remained the diocesan organ until 1910 when, chiefly through lack of support, it was discontinued. The paper had for its object the cause of the Indians and was an attempt to give a history of their progress toward civilization. In 1888 only one issue appeared, the Prospectus. The year following it came out as a quarterly, of four pages of small in-folio size. In 1893 it was published in Royal Octavo size of twenty-four pages. In 1902 it was reduced to regular Octavo dimensions with the pages numbering thirty-six. From 1902 to June, 1910, the last issue, it was published each month. Only two complete files of this publication are known to exist. One is found at Sacred Heart Priory at Sacred Heart, Oklahoma, and the other in the private collection of Reverend Urban de Hasque. At the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C., the following volumes may be found; 6-22 (1894-1910). The files of the Indian Advocate are rich in the history of the early Benedictines in the Territory. Of its very nature it is replete with every phase of missionary and educational activity. It recorded news from each of the Indian missions, biographical sketches of the priests in the Territory, the coming of the various religious orders of women, deaths, ordinations, personal notes, changes in parishes, statistics that indicated the growth in the Catholic population, both Indian and white. Through its wide publication the needs of the Territory were brought to the attention of persons throughout the country and as a consequence much assistance was given to the Indians at the mission schools. The early issues of the Indian

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Advocate devoted its columns strictly to things that concerned the work of the Church and for that reason it is practically the only printed source of the Church's history during Territorial days. The articles were well written, and have real historical value.

Indian Citizen, Atoka, Indian Territory, March 16, 1889. Mentions return of Father Robot from the Indian country.

Indian Sentinel. An annual published in the interest of the Society for the Preservation of the Faith among Indian children by the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions. Washington, 1902-1938.

The issues of this small publication, consisting generally of fifty odd pages, contain much that is of value to the Indian Mission Schools in Indian Territory. Of these, certain numbers are of particular interest to this study. Namely, the 1902-1903 number, for its appeal on behalf of the Catholic Indian Schools; "The Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament Number," 1907, which contains an excellent account of Mother Katherine Drexel and also an article on Saint Mary's Academy at Sacred Heart; "The Archbishop Ryan Number," for the account of Saint Louis Industrial School at Pawhuska and Saint John's at Gray Horse; "Our Lady of Guadalupe Number," 1914, for splendid accounts of Sacred Heart Institute at Vinita, Saint Agnes School, Antlers as well as the items on missionary work among the Choctaws; "The Father de Smet Number," 1916, continues the story of "In Choctaw Lands" and includes a worthwhile article on Matthias Splitlog, one of the best known Catholic Indians in the Territory. The Indian Sentinel was a source for Catholic Indian history, not only in Oklahoma, but wherever Catholic Indian Missions are located, and is such that anyone writing in this field could not fail to consult.

Les Benedictines de Sainte Marie de la Pierre-qui-Vire. (Diocese de Sens). Pamphlet printed at Monastere de Sainte Marie de la Pierre-qui-Vire par Quarre les Tombes in 1877.

This little study containing seventy-four pages is a brief history of the founding of the monastery of Pierre-qui-Vire by the saintly, religious Father J. B. Muard, who died in 1854. The growth

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of the community continued under Father Bernard Moreau during whose time the foundation in America was begun. The pamphlet discusses monastic life under the rule of the primitive obervance.

Les Missions Catholiques. (Bulletin hebdomadaire illustre de L'Oeuvre de la Propagation de la Foi. Lettres et recita des Missionaries, Voyages, Geographic, Sciences, Arts, Caries et Gravures inedites. A Lyon, su bureau des Missiones Catholiques rue d'Auvergne 6) .

From January 26, 1877, until March 29, 1901, practically every issue of this publication gave some space to affairs in the Indian Territory. The articles included letters from Father Isidore Robot and other Benedictines at Sacred Heart; Decrees of the Propaganda such as naming Father Robot titular Abbot; the erection of the Novitiate at Sacred Heart and others; resignations, appointments, deaths, statistics, recruits, the beginning of new mission schools, erection of churches, missionary trips, the progress and development of the Vicariate, the appointment of a Vicar Apostolic, in short scores of articles concerning the Church in Indian Territory.

Letters and Notices, 50 Volumes. Roehampton, England, 1863-1936.

A publication by the Society of Jesus for private circulation only. Of interest to this study are the letters of Father Colleton and one of Father Ponziglione regarding the work at Osage Mission.

Little Star of the Black Belt. Lynchburg, Virginia, September, 1902. Volume I, No. 2.

The value of this small monthly publication is that it was edited by Father J. Anciaux who worked so zealously in the Territory in behalf of the negro. The article entitled "Langston and Oklahoma" gave a worthwhile picture of "little Africa." The publication had a number of reprints from other Catholic papers. A number of articles were signed by Father Anciaux, and thrown in here and there were several articles written in French.

Louisville Catholic Advocate, Louisville, Kentucky, November 6, 1876. Article concerning the yellow fever epidemic at the Isle of Hope, near Savannah, Georgia.

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Lucy, Reverend John M., Souvenir of a Silver Jubilee, Little Rock, 1892.

This small publication, consisting of thirty-two pages, is a simple narrative of the church in Arkansas. It represents for the most part items jotted down from personal recollections or from conversations with persons familiar with the events. In it one may find a record of the visits made by priests from the diocese of Arkansas, of which the Indian Territory was a part until 1876. It gives a worthwhile picture of the diocese at that time, with the few scattered congregations; of the Indian Territory and the Forts where the priests made frequent visits. The value of the narrative lies in the fact that it is one of the very few publications on the church in Arkansas, and that what is mentioned concerning the visits of priests from Fort Smith is substantiated by the Baptism and Marriage Records available for anyone interested in this missionary work.

Memorial Volume. A History of the Third Plenary Council of Baltimore. November 9 to December 7, 1884. Baltimore, 1885.
Contains a brief sketch of the life and an excellent picture of Father Robot.

Mills, Lawrence, The Lands of the Five Civilized Tribes. Saint Louis, 1919.
A treatise upon the law applicable to the lands of the Five Civilized Tribes with a compilation of all Treaties, Federal Acts, Laws of Arkansas, and of the Several Tribes Relating thereto, together with the Rules and Regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Interior governing the sale of Tribal Lands, the Leasing and Sale of Allotted Lands and the Removal of Restrictions.

Morning Star. New Orleans, Louisiana, December 6, 1876.

New Orleans Morning Star. New Orleans, Louisiana, August 22, 1880.

New York Freeman's Journal and Catholic Register, 76 Volumes. New York, 1840-1909.

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From the date of the erection of the Prefecture and the appointment of Father Robot, O.S.B., to the new mission field, the Freeman's Journal, under the direction of the aggressive James McMaster, began to record events connected with it. What is more important is the extensive correspondence between Father Robot and Mr. McMaster. For three years, 1876-1879, the letters of the Prefect Apostolic appeared in the columns of the Freeman's Journal. This correspondence was not mere notes. Father Robot wrote not only interesting letters but very long ones as well. They ranged in length from five pages to twelve and one consisted of twenty. During the year 1879 practically every issue of this newspaper devoted a large amount of space to the "Confraternity for Reparation to the Indians," a plan for raising funds for the Prefecture Apostolic. Each week during the entire year, the contributions received were listed and very frequently a number of letters that had been received were published. In addition there are dozens of Editorials devoted to the cause of the Prefecture and the work inaugurated by Father Robot. During this year, too, the difficulties between the Freeman's Journal and the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions that grew out of the journal soliciting funds, an infringement on the rights claimed by the Bureau, was greatly publicized. Scathing editorials, sometimes two double columns in length, set forth the attitude of the editor toward the attacks on his pet plan. He emerged triumphant, it seems, for the Confraternity received the blessing of the Holy Father, the amount desired was collected and peace reigned once again in the columns of the Freeman's Journal. Of historical value are later issues of this paper, particularly during 1880-1884. After that date, however, the Prefecture did not seem to receive any publicity from this source. The Freeman's Journal is a source not only for the history of the Church in Indian Territory but has many articles of value concerning the Church in other parts of the southwsst. The Journal began its publication in 1840, absorbing the Catholic Register in 1841. It continued until 1910 when it passed out of existence.

New York Tablet, New York, Saturday, June 1, 1878, the Catholic Indian Bureau; Saturday, August 24, 1876, account of Yellow

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Fever in the South with particular reference to Savannah, Georgia; June 1, 1878, reference to the difficulty between the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions and the Freeman's Journal over funds for the Indian Territory; September 21, 1878, an appeal of John Cardinal McClosky, Archbishop of New York for funds for the south stricken by Yellow Fever, of interest to this study because the first two novices at Sacred Heart came when the epidemic had claimed the lives of the greater number at the monastery on the Isle of Hope near Savannah.

Oeuvre, des Missions Catholiques des Etats-Unis D'Amerique, Rome, 1879.

A small pamphlet published by the Propaganda in the interest of the Catholic Missions of the United States. It contains a letter of the Sacred Congregation of the Propaganda, recommending the work to all the Bishops of the United States. It has also a brief explanation of the Bureau itself; the object of the work, in what it consists and its personnel. There is an estimate made of the number of Indians in the United States, those who are Catholic or the descendants of Catholics. The last page is devoted to an appeal for support and a list of the hierarchy approving the project.

Oklahoma Daily Capital. Guthrie Indian Territory, September 29, 1889. This was the first paper published in Oklahoma Territory. Contains an article announcing the opening of Saint Mary's Parochial School.

Orphan's Record, Oklahoma City, 1915-1924, II Volumes.

This was the second Catholic monthly to appear in Oklahoma. Of particular interest is Volume I which is characterized by the number of articles on matters of historical interest in the diocese. Many of these are signed and are all scholarly. They include such items as Catholic buildings erected; Catholic Churches incorporated; news from each of the parishes; reports from the various religious congregations; changes among the clergy; Episcopal appointments, and other subjects of purely historical character. Unfortunately the later volumes of this publication did not continue

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recording Church history as was done the first year. Although all the succeeding issues fall far short of that of 1915 there are some that are of definite historic worth.

Ponziglione, Paul M., S.J., Antecedents of the Osage Mission. An article written by Father Ponziglione in 1897 and published in the Saint Paul Journal, September 12, 1935. The same article states that the original is to be found in the archives of the Passionist Monastery, Saint Paul, Kansas.

Purcell Register, Purcell, Oklahoma, March 30, 1893. A beautiful tribute by a non-Catholic, in a non-Catholic paper to the Benedictine Fathers at Sacred Heart.

Reports of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. Boston, 1820, and continued up to the present time. It is one of the richest sources for the history of Presbyterian missionary activity with a substantial reference to their work in Indian Territory.

Reports of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1832-1937. Contains reports from the missionaries and those in charge of the various Indian schools. In 1832 the office was established in the War Department and continued there until 1849. At this date it was removed to the Department of the Interior.

Reports of the Governor of Oklahoma Territory, Washington, 1893-1906.

A general description of the Territory, its natural resources, attractions, future possibilities with tables of statistics showing the industrial development, and other features of the new territory are contained in these yearly reports. Of particular value are the statistics showing the number of Catholic Churches, priests, chapels, stations, residences, church membership, schools for whites, colored, and Indians, and even the Sunday schools with their number in attendance. They serve as an index to the growth of the Catholic Catholic Church in the Territory. The condition, number, location and general progress of each Indian tribe is also given.

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Revista Catholica, Las Vegas, New Mexico, April 30, 1893. Excursion of Reverend P. Salvador Persone, S.J., from Trinidad, Colorado, to the Mexican settlement in western Oklahoma. Also November 4, 1894. Father Persone describes another visit to the same Mexican settlement in company with Bishop Meerschaert.

Robot, Right Reverend Dom Isidore, The Life of the Reverend Mary John Baptist Muard. Founder of the Missionary Priests of the Benedictine Monastery of Saint Mary of Pierre-qui-Vire. Translated from the French of the Abbe Brulee, New York and Cincinnati, 1882.

This is the first printed account of the foundation of the Benedictine monastery of Pierre-qui-Vire, the Motherhouse of the Benedictine Fathers of Sacred Heart. It is evidence, too, of the untiring energy of the first Prefect Apostolic, who in the midst of his labors in the wilds of Indian Territory could devote some time to work of this nature.

Sadlier's Catholic Directory, Almanac and Ordo, New York, 1864-1889; also Hoffman's Catholic Directory, Almanac and Clergy List, 1886-1907. These directories list the churches and clergy, the stations with churches or chapels, the Indian tribes and stations without churches, the number of Catholic Indian Mission schools, the names of those in charge of such schools, the parochial schools and the number in attendance, academies, seminaries, students in each, baptisms recorded, and the Catholic population ecah year. From it could be obtained the name and place of residence of the clergy in the Territory.

Senate Mis. Docs., No. 137, 42nd Cong., 2nd Sess., Vol. II, April 11, 1872, Serial No. 1478. Confirmation of the reservation in I. T. to Great and Little Osage.

Schmeckebier, Laurence F., The Office of Indian Affairs, Its History, Activities and Organizations. (Service monograph of the United States Government, 48), Baltimore, 1927.

A detailed study of the relationship between the United States government and the Indian Tribes to the year 1928. The periods

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of allotment and citizenship, particularly since 1887, is developed in detail. The removal of the Indians is briefly discussed. The tables of statistics, the maps, and the table of reservations and agencies were of particular interest to the study of Indian Territory.

Southern Messenger, San Antonio, Texas, April 6, 1905.

This issue contains an article reprinted from The Living Age, Langston, Oklahoma, Territory. It tells the story of the establishment of Holy Family Colored School, of the first teachers, and the school's growth and successful operation.

Thwaites, R. C., (ed), Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents, Travels and Explorations of the Jesuit Missionaries in New France 1610-1791. 73 volumes, Cleveland, 1896-1901.

---------------. Early Western Travels, 1848-1846, 32 volumes, Cleveland, 1904-1907.

From this compilation of western history, an excellent account of the Territory in the early part of the century may be found in Nuttall, Thomas, Journal of Travels into the Arkansas Territory during the year 1819, XIII, Cleveland, 1905.

Woodstock Letters. (A record of the Current Events and Historical Notes connected with the Colleges and Missions of the Society of Jesus), 64 volumes. Woodstock, Maryland, 1872-1935.

In this series printed for private circulation volumes III-1X, XI-XIII, XVIII, embracing the years 1874-1889, contain material pertinent to this study. The missionary trips made by Father Ponziglione, S.J., into the Indian Territory and the incidents connected with such visits are some of the items in these reports that help to show the extent of Jesuit activity in Indian Territory.

Wallrapp, Reverend James J., Our Lady of Prompt Succor Church, n. d. A booklet published some time before statehood, as all advertisements are listed Indian Territory, giving the history of Saint Agnes Academy, tuition charges, courses offered and a number of pictures showing the pupils at play and views of the

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school. There is also a brief history of Our Lady of Prompt Succor Church, pictures of the small frame structure and the residence of the pastor, the names and addresses of Catholic Families in Ardmore and Surrounding Country. The booket contains thirty-five pages.



Barnaba, Sister Mary, O.S.F., A Diamond Crown for Christ the King. A story of the First Franciscan Foundation in Our Country 1855-1930, Glen Riddle, Pennsylvania, 1930.

The book, an intimate, personal narrative was written to present and to preserve the record of the origin and religious work of the Sisters of the Third Order of Saint Francis. A brief account, with a few interesting pictures, is given of the schools in Indian Territory that were under their care.

Baska, Sister Mary Regina, O.S.B., The Benedictine Congregation of Saint Scholastica: Its Foundation and Development (1852-1930). The Catholic University of America Studies in American Church History, XX, Washington, 1935.

Catholic Encyclopedia. An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church, 15 volumes. New York, 1907.

Clarke, Richard Henry, Lives of the Deceased Bishops of the Catholic Church in the United States. New York, 1888.

Code, Reverend Joseph Bernard, Great American Foundresses, New York, 1929. Contains an account of Mother Katherine Drexel and the Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament.

Dehey, E. T., Religious Orders of Women in the United States, rev. ed. Hammond, Indiana, 1930.

Fitzgerald, Sister Mary Paul, The Osage Missions: A Factor in the Making of Kansas. Ph. D. dissertation St. Louis U. 1936.

By far the most scholarly treatment of the Jesuit Mission at Saint Paul, Kansas. The manuscript collection of Father Ponzig-

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lione in the archives of Saint Louis University was the inspiration of this work. The development of the Mission was studied against a background of Government Indian Policy, Missionary Endeavor, and Indian Life and Customs. Based almost wholly on primary materials it is of singular importance to any one writing on the Osage Indians.

Gately, Sister Mary Josephine, The Sisters of Mercy. Historical Sketches, (1831-1931). New Work, 1931. The history of the Sisters of Mercy is told "from historical matter gathered from five continents." The sketch on Saint Mary's School at Sacred Heart is disappointing.

Gittinger, Roy. The Formation of the State of Oklahoma, 1803-1906. University of California Publications in History, Volume VI, Berkeley, 1917.

Gould, Charles, N., Oklahoma Place Names, Linguistic Origins, Physiographic Names, Names of Counties, Post Offices, Towns, Forts, Old Timers, Obsolete Terms, Norman, Oklahoma, 1933.

Graves, William Whites, Life and Letters of Reverend Father John Schoemmakers, S. J., Apostle to the Osages, Parsons, Kansas, 1928.

Griffin, J., Contributions of Belgium to the Catholic Church in America, 1823-1857. The Catholic University of America, Studies in American Church History, XIII Washington, D. C., 1932.

Harlow, Rex, Oklahoma Leaders. Biographical Sketches of the Foremost Living Men of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City. 1928. Contains a biographical sketch of Right Reverend Francis C. Kelley, Bishop of the Oklahoma City-Tulsa Diocese.

Hodge, Frederick Webb (Ed), Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Bureau of American Ethnology. Bulletin 30, Parts I and II, Washington, 1907-1910. This is a simple source book for general information concerning the Indian Tribes, their removals, treaties made with the Federal government, and other items regarding their numbers, customs and religious belief.

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Indian Territory, Descriptive Biographical, Geneological, including the Landed Estates, County Seats with General History of the Territory. New York, 1901. Contains several biographical sketches of Oklahoma priests.

Kinsella, Reverend Thomas H., A Century of Catholicity in Kansas 1822-1922 Catholic Indian Missions and Missionaries of Kansas. The Pioneers of the Prairies, Kansas City, 1921.

Contains notes on Saint Mary's Mission, Sugar Creek, the Diary of Father Hoecken and various old Indian Records.

Lewis, Theodore, Spanish Explorers in the Southern United States. The narrative of the Expedition of Hernando de Soto by the Gentleman of Elvas, edited by Theodore Lewis; of Alvar Nunez Cabeca, ed. by Frederick W. Hodge. The narrative of the expedition of Coronado by Pedro de Castaneda, edited by Frederick Hodge; with maps and a facsimile reproduction. New York, 1907.

Lucy, Reverend J. J., The Catholic Church in Arkansas, Little Rock, 1906. A small pamphlet of fifty-seven pages, based on the Silver Jubilee edition by the same author.

McInerney, Reverend, J.J., Past and Present, Humboldt, 1910. Of value to this study is the tribute paid Father Ponziglione, S.J.

Miscellaneous Indian Documents, 1870-19---. U. S. Department of the Interior, 54 volumes. Washington, Government Printing Office, 1870-19---.

Moorehead, Warren King, Archaeology of the Arkansas River Valley, with supplementary papers on "The Prehistoric Cultures of Oklahoma," by Joseph Thoburn. Published for the Department of Archaeology, Andover, Massachusetts, 1931.

Morrison, William Brown, Military Posts and Camps in Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, 1936.

The author devotes considerable space to the non-Catholic missionaries who visited the Posts.

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Owens, Sister Mary Lilliana, S.L., The History of the Sisters of Loretto in the Trans-Mississippi West, Ms., Ph.D. dissertation, Saint Louis University, 1935.

Portrait and Biographical Record of Oklahoma. Commemorating the achievement of citizens who have contributed to the progress of Oklahoma and the Development of its Resources. Chicago, 1901.

Shea, John Gilmary, History of the Catholic Missions Among the Indians, New York, 1885.

--------------- A History of the Catholic Church in the United States, 4 volumes, New York, 1890.

Shipp, Bernard, The History of Hernando de Soto and Florida or Record of the Events of Fifty-Six Years from 1512-1568, Philadelphia, 1881. A History of the Conquest of Florida or a narrative of what occurred in the Exploration of this Country by Hernando de Soto by The Inca Garcilasco de la Vega. Translated from the French Version of Pierre Richelet from the original Spanish. A very rare book.

The History of Catholicity in Arkansas, ed., Diocesan Historical Commission, Little Rock, 1925.

The Romance of Oklahoma, Oklahoma Authors' Club, Oklahoma City, 1920. In a chapter entitled "The Light of the Cross," tribute is paid to the Catholic beginnings at Sacred Heart and to Bishop Meerschaert and his labors in the diocese.

Thoburn, Joseph B., assisted by a Board of Advisors, A Standard History of Oklahoma. Five volumes, Chicago and New York, 1916.

Walker, Francis A., The Indian Question, Boston, 1878.

Webb, Walter Prescott, The Great Plains, Boston, 1931.

Winship, George Parker, "The Coronado Expedition 1540-1542," Fourteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology 1892-1893, Washington, 1896.

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Anderson, Sister Pauline, O.S.B., "Benedictine Sisters in the United States," Little Flower Monastery Messenger. Newton, New Jersey, July, 1933.

Ave Maria, Notre Dame, Indiana, 1865-1938. January 20, 1877. Supports and approves the plans of Mr. James McMaster in the New York Freeman's Journal for raising funds for the Prefecture of Indian Territory.

Bandelier, Adolphe F. A., "Fray Juan de Padilla, the first Catholic Missionary and Martyr in Eastern Kansas, 1542," American Catholic Quarterly Review, XV (1890), 551-565.

--------------- "Final Report of Investigations Among the Indians of Southwestern United States Carried on from 1880-1885," Papers of the Archaeological Institute of America, American Series, III, IV, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1886.

"The Benedictines" by one of themselves, The Catholic World, XXXI, (1880), 243-257.

Bolton, H. E., "The Jumano Indians in Texas 1650-1771," Texas Historical Quarterly, XV (July, 1911 to April, 1912).

Chronicles of Oklahoma. Published quarterly by the Oklahoma Historical Society, Oklahoma City, 1924-1938.

De Hasque, Reverend Urban, "Early History of Oklahoma," The Southwest Courier, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, July-December, 1928.

--------------- "Religious Congregations in Oklahoma," The Southwest Courier, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, March-May, 1930.

Donahue, David, "The Route of the Coronado Expedition," Southwestern Historical Quarterly, XXXII (January, 1929), 181-193. Presents the view that the expedition never left Texas.

Fitzgerald, Sister Mary Paul, "A Jesuit Circuit Rider," Mid-American, XVIII (July, 1936), 162-198. A life of Father Paul Ponziglione, S.J., based for the most part on the Western Missions Journal, Ms., collection at Saint Louis University.

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Ganss, Reverend H. C., "The Indian Mission Problem, Past and Present," The Catholic Mind, New York, September, 1904. A scholarly discussion of the Peace Policy of President Grant, the organization and work of the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions, Mother Katherine Drexel and the various religious orders working among the Indians.

Hitta, Reverend Aloysius, "Saint Patrick's Indian Mission at Anadarko, Oklahoma," The Oklahoma Indian School Magazine (Kiowa Edition), Chilocco, Oklahoma, December, 1932. This historical sketch is written by one who has been connected with the school since 1901.

Ketcham, William H., "Brief Historical Sketch of Catholic Indian Mission Work in the United States of America." Miscellanea Theologica, XXIX, No. 17.

--- ------------"Our Catholic Indian Missions." Miscellanea Historica, Ecclesiastica, XIV.

--------------- "Black But Beautiful." Sermon on the occasion of the Reception of Novices at Saint Elizabeth's Convent Motherhouse of the Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament for Indians and Colored People. Maud P. I., Bucks County, Pennsylvania, February 15, 1909.

Lanslots, Reverend D. I., "Saint Anthony's Hospital," The Acorn, Oklahoma City, 1936. This annual publication by the nurses of Saint Anthony's Hospital contains a signed article by Father Lanslots who is now living in Belgium. The circumstances connected with the building of the hospital, its subsequent growth and expansion is told by the one because of whose influence the first buildings were erected in 1898.

Mildred, M. M., S.H.C.J., "James Alphonsus McMaster, pioneer Catholic Journalist of the United States," Records of the American Catholic Historical Society, XLVI (March, 1935). 1-25.

The article was written in an effort to arouse interest in the life of Mr. McMaster who displayed such a keen interest in every question that concerned the religious, social and political life of his generation. He was editor of the Freeman's Journal for forty years.

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Rothensteiner, Reverend John E., "The Champion of the Catholic Indian Schools," Central-Blatt and Social Justice, XVII (1924-1925).

Saint Rose of Lima Parish Bulletin, Perry, Oklahoma, 1935-1938, XIII (September, 1933).

A small monthly publication edited by Reverend Urban de Hasque. Half of the space is devoted to the affairs of the parish, the remainder to diocesan history.

Smith, Helen Kate, "A Woman of the Drexels," The Sign, Union City, New Jersey.

This calls attention to a work for the Indian and Negro population that had been going quietly on for nearly a half century. It gives a short biography of Mother Katherine Drexel and a brief discussion of the work of the Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament.

Steck, Francis Borgia, "The Neglected Aspects of the De Soto Expedition," Mid-America, XV (July, 1932), 2-27.

Stalfa, Florence J., "Catholic Folk Organized in '92," The Daily Ardmorite, Ardmore, Oklahoma, July 21, 1937.

Gives a brief history of the Church at Ardmore, based in part on the church records and the writings of Reverend Urban de Hasque.

The Central Catholic Advocate, August 14, 1884. "The Benedictines in the Diocese of Savannah."

The Southwest Courier, Oklahoma City, 1925-1938.

No other printed source contains more material on the church in Oklahoma than the files of this Catholic weekly.2

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