The hostility of the Comanche Indians and other tribes in Texas interposed great difficulties to the white settlers of that young republic. The United States Government undertook to help the Texans make peace with these Indians. In 1843 Pierce M. Butler, former Governor of South Carolina, was stationed at Fort Gibson, where he performed the duties of Cherokee Agent. Under directions of the government, and with an escort from Fort Washita, he attended the Treaty Conference with representatives of a number of western tribes at Tawakoni Creek, March 15, 1843. This was an interesting conference, but the Comanches whom the commissioners particularly wished to meet, were not in attendance. For this resson it was adjourned until autumn, to meet at Bird's Fort on the Trinity River. An extended effort was made by the commissioners of Texas to find the Comanches and bring representatives to this meeting. Their search extended into the Wichita Mountains in Western Oklahoma and the surrounding country, but it was unavailing.
In the course of the next year another effort was made, and the United States Government sent Captain Nathan Boone from Fort Gibson to assist and represent the Federal Government. He parted September 25, 1849; but the Indians did not remain at the camp ground until his arrival, and this effort likewise resulted in failure.
Another attempt was made in 1845, and commissions were issued to Pierce M. Butler and M. G. Lewis to enter into a treaty with the Comanche Indians and secure white captives in their possession. When they received their commissions, Butler and Lewis went to the home of the former at Columbia, South Carolina, whence they departed for New Orleans. They arrived there November first, and purchased a supply of goods to be bartered to the Indians in exchange for white captives, to obtain their good will and induce them to enter into the desired treaty. They then descended Red River to Shreveport, Louisiana, to purchase mules and equipment, and complete their outfit; from there they proceeded overland to their rendezvous
at Coffee's Station on the Red River, opposite the mouth of the Washita River. The Texans then sent runners out to the Indians, notifying them that the Council would be held at Comanche Peak. News of this undertaking traveled far, and bereaved parents hastened to meet the commissioners at Shreveport to tell of their children who were captives among the Indians.
Before joining Lewis and the outfit at Coffee's Station, Governor Butler went to Fort Gibson, where he endeavored to secure a military escort from the commandant, but in vain. He then interviewed the Indians living near, with a view to securing an escort and delegations from the emigrant tribes. On December 26, he set out from the comfortable home of William Sherry Coodey. He was accompanied by the Cherokee delegates, Elijah Hicks, Mr. Coodey, and J. L. Washburn, one of the editors of the Arkansas Intelligencer. As they proceeded they were joined from time to time by other white men; by Wild Cat, the Seminole delegate, and Major Alberson, Chickasaw; but the Choctaw Indians who had promised to come, failed them. In Texas, Teesay Guess, a son of Sequyah, joined the delegation. While on this expedition, he was badly injured by a falling tree. Tim Tiblow, a Delaware, purchased from the Choctaw merchant Robert L. Jones, at Boggy Depot, a supply of goods which he took to the Conference to trade with the Indians expected there. A number of white men attached themselves to the party for hunting, adventure, and trade.
Butler's party of nineteen proceeded over the Texas Road, and crossed Red River at the new village of Preston, where they joined Commissioner Lewis and his twenty-nine men. Lewis insisted on traveling with a wagon, thereby entailing much labor over a road through the timber, and causing vexatious delay. He was accompanied by Mrs. Lewis, the only woman in the party. "She is quite an Amazon," reported Mr. Washburn to his paper; "wears a belt and dagger—shoots a rifle expertly—rides well on horseback and takes notes—rather handsome, medium size, English by birth—married four years—no children. The Colonel is very sprightly and gentlemanly in his deportment." The party now numbered 48 persons, with 70 or 80 saddle and
pack horses and mules. Rations for sixty men were carried, besides $1200.00 worth of merchandise for presents, and trading with Indians. The party included Holland Coffee with his hunters, who furnished meat for them. Wild Cat was a skillful hunter, and showed Governor Butler and his friends how to hunt bear.—(G. F.)
Memorandum of incidents of a mission to the Comanches by authority of the U. S. Gov. Butler & W. G. Lewis Comisrs.
Honble George Lowry appointed W. S. Coody and E. Hicks as delegates to represent the Cherokee Nation at the Comanchee Council. (In pencil) Friday 12-19-1845. Left my residence at Santy [or Lauty] Verdigris on the 19th day of Decbr & arrived at W. L. Coodys on the 20th instant in order to join Gov. Butler.
Wednesday Decbr 24th. Gov. Butler & W. S. Coody in attendance at Camp near the residence of the latter near the bank of Ar. River,1 where preparations were made for the journey. Assorting and weighing of baggage and packing of mules, with provisions for the mission to subsist twelve persons.
Thursday 12-25. Christmas eve. Attended by the party at Mr. Coodeys and were entertained with a Comanche dance by Gillis2 late a Captive boy among the Comanches, redeemed by Gov. Butler, with a Comanche dance. Delaware & Kickapoo dances Songs & Hooping to the no little gratification of the party.
1William Sherry Coodey lived on the west bank of the Arkansas River about three miles east of the present Muskogee. His was a comfortable home surrounded by every mark of affluence, and the surrounding cultivated land and herds were looked after by a number of slaves. This home was near the famous thoroughfare known as the Texas Road, and many people stopped here to enjoy the hospitality of Mr. Coodey. It was a favorite attraction for army officers at Ft. Gibson, who came to visit and to enjoy the society of the Cherokee ladies, friends and relatives of Mr. and Mrs. Coodey. The comfortable old double loghouse was burned many years ago.
2Gillis Doyle was the name of a Texas boy who was captured by the Comanche Indians about 1840. Gillis, with his father and a number of other men, were on the bank of the Colorado River securing rock for building purposes when they were attacked by the Indians, who killed three of the men and took the boy prisoner. Gillis was purchased from his captors by Bill Connor, a Delaware Indian, who brought him to Ft. Gibson in the spring of 1845 and gave him to Gov. Butler. Butler wrote that the boy was "extremely ignorant, and appears to have lost almost every vestige of civilization. He is uncommunicative and appears cowed. He speaks very imperfect English and very unwillingly. He is a robust and healthy boy, but much tanned. He spoke Comanche, said Butler, "and represents that among the Indians of that tribe where were about twenty white boys, Americans, and four girls in the same clan as himself." Connor had paid the Comanche Chief for the boy in horses, rifles and goods of the total value of $300.00. Governor Butler gave Connor $100.00, and promised him the remaining $200.00 as soon as he could secure authority from Washington. It was while in Washington a few months later that Butler reported the information obtained from Gillis which was largely responsible for issuing a commission to him and Lewis for the expedition of 1845.
Thursday Decber 25th. Remained at Mr. Coodeys, very cold.—Gov'r. Butler Sent to Biyou3 for Camp articles. Party now consisting of Govr Butler Comr. Judge Rose of South Ca. traveller, W. L. Coodey & E Hicks delegates to the Comanches Mr. Washbourne of Van Buren Ed' of Ar. Intelligencer of the firm of Washbourne & Price and 8 or 10 hired persons packman Cooks &c consisting of Cherokees, Spaniards whites negroes & Irish.
December 26th. Gov. Butler & party, consisting of 18 persons, and 28 horses left Frozen Rock—, W. S. Coodeys, and camped in the Prairie 7 miles. Party consisting of Gov. Butler Comr.—Coodey & Hicks delegates to the Comanches. Mr. Washbourne Edr. of the Ar. Intelligencer. Mr. Rose of Charleston, S. C.—& 13 packman of Cherokees, whites & a Spaniard.
Sunday Decbr. 28th. Party halted at Chilly McIntoshes North Fork Creek Nation, one of the delegates appointed by the Creek Nation to Comanches—but refused to proceed at present. Hicks and Coodey proceeded in advance and arrived at Little River Tuesday 30th and Gov. Butler & party arrived same day and pitched camps on the bank of Little River at Edwards. now one hundred miles from Fort Gibson (100)
January 1st. 1846. This morning party proceeded, and were joined by Wild Cat Seminoley Chief & his Secretary, Toonaka. Two miles ride brought party to the Canadian River and crossed the Same over into the Chickasaw Country. River the line between Creeks & Chickasaws and travelled 17 miles & camped.
January 2nd, 1846. Party resumed Journey at day light and after passing over a poor barren prairie arrived at Dry Foreheads a Cherokee Chief on Boggy (Big) a Settlement of
3On Bayou Manard, at a point about seven miles east of Fort Gibson, the Cherokee Agency had been located for several years.
Cherokees from Texas. We travelled this day 20 miles (twenty miles).
Jany 3rd. Journey resumed this morning and arrived at Blue Creek and camped at Thomas" a Chickasaw Settlement. This day 22 miles.
Jany 4th. Resumed our journey, passed Chickasaw Council House & camped at Chickasaw Agency Col. Upshaw Agent. This day 12 miles. (In half a mile of Fort Washitaw.)
January 5th. Remained here to purchase supplies and camped to complete outfit.
Thursday Jany 8th, 1846. Party resumed journey. Crossed Fort Washita a half mile from Camp, and proceeded to Red River Crossed the same at Coffees Station and some above, and pitched tents near Coffees residence, One mile from crossing. This day travelled 20 miles.
Jany 9th. Remained in camps to complete outfits for Journey.
Sunday Jany 11th. This day united with Col. Lewis Comsr. which made party fifty persons strong, and seventy five horses, and then took up the line of march for journey, and encamped at McVartneys. This day 16 miles.
Monday Jany 12th. Resumed journey, passed Cross timbers six or seven miles wide & camped on a branch of the Trinity. This day 20 miles.
Tuesday Jany 13th. Continued journey this Morng, over a mountainous Prairie & camped on another branch of Trinity. Saw many deer, but wild. This day 15 miles.
Wednesday, Jany 14th. This day travelled over a broken Prairie and pitched camp in a green brier swamp of the Trinity new Texas. This day 6 miles.
Thursday Jany 15th. Journey resumed this morning over a fine prairie & in this upper cross timbers & camped at a ravine of Trinity branch. This day 15 miles.
Friday Jany 16th. Party moved onward this morning and travelled a zigzag route in a romantic prairie. Discovered Cher-
okee lodges hunting & purchased Bears meat. This day 12 miles.
Saturday Jany 17th. Continued journey this morning over a prairie & then timber and pitched tents on a Creek, Supposed middle Trinity. This day 12 miles. This is main branch Trinity.)
Sunday Jany 18th. Remained in camp this day & rested to graze horses. Kickapoo lodges headed by Tecumseh. Comrs. employed two Kickapoo messengers to notify Comanches to meet at Peak. Employed also one for a pilot.
Monday Jany 19th. This is a rainy day and at night snow & sleet.
Tuesday Jany 30th. Remained in camp. Gov. Butler set out to look out for best route.
Wednesday Jany, 21st. A part of the Caravan removed their camp across creek one mile. Col. Lewis indisposed removed in camp. Mr. Rose thursday shot his thumb. Creek supposed to be the main branch of Trinity.
Thursday Jany. 22nd. Remained in camp, and hunted, Several deer Killed. Col. Lewis came up this day & joined party.
Friday Jany 23rd. Express sent back to Washita by Washbourne Mr. Rose, and guide, & Packman— Party ordered to proceed, and after travelling over a poor prairie & scrubby wood took up camp. Two Partys of Kickapoos here hunting. This day 8 miles.
Saturday Jany, 24th. Party proceeded on journey and passing over a poor country generally scrubby timber, took up camp at source of the same branch left this morning. This day 6 miles. Two miles from camp near the Witchitaw trail stands the Comanche Peek No. 1. No frost.
Sunday Jany 25th. Resumed journey over a sterile prairie & low timber and underbrush. Met a Caravan of Kickapoo hunters men women & children, horses heavily loaded with peltries; numbering about three hundred. The Party purchased buckskins & mockisons & Bear meat & venison. This was a
motley party consisting of whites, Cherokees, Chickasaws, Seminoleys, Spaniards, Kickapoos & Negroes. This day 12 miles. No frost.
Monday Jany 26th. Resumed our journey over a beautiful valley enclosed by picturesque mountains, Muskit trees & grass along Kickapoos hunting trail and encamped on the bank of the Red Fork of the Brazos, a large River at this point with exceeding rich table land, of thousands of acres & surrounded by handsome mountain scenery. This day 20 miles. no frost Caddoe corn patches here.
Tuesday Jany 27th. Continued journey proceeded down the river which ran a south course, along Kickapoo hunting trail, crossed the river two miles from camp & took a South course over a low marshy muskit ground and pitched camps at a ravine from South west. This day 10 miles.
Wednesday Jany 28th Party proceeded on their journey South & down the river, over a low flat muskit lands, Had two horses stolen last night by unknown Indians. There was rain and travelled 8 miles & pitched camps.
Thursday, Jany 29th. Commissioners advised the Separation of the Caravan into four parties to search for the Indians, Comanches &c. Coodey, Hicks, Wild cat & Charles a negro, a cook to travel the North west creek to the source & to invite Indians to meet at Comanche Peak. Chickasaws to proceed in advance on the middle route. George Boenton & Fomanka John to cross red fork and down the same. Commissioners and party in the middle route all to meet at the clear fork of Brazos.
Coodey & Hicks & party proceeded north of west and found a large Creek or river coming from the West, and assended the same to the mountains. Passed fine grazing in the bottoms, very wide. The remainder of the grounds passed are poor broken with scrubby post oak. These bottoms looks equal to summer. This day travelled 10 miles. No game today.
Cooacoochee killed a rabbit of a large species ears six inches long, and taller than the grey fox.
Friday Jany 30th. We proceeded this morning to the mountain & followed the valley South West. A beautiful vally and
mountain, covered with cedar. The valley low, muskit grass & wood. Followed a ravine to the mountains & crossed over and found a ravine running South West on which we camped. Not a spot of ground fit for human habitation. This day 18 miles.
Coodey & self were much entertained by Cooacochee (Wild Cat) of remarks on the fine promise of Govt. officers in Florida to the Seminoleys. The (sic) had assured them, that in the West, they would find amongst a numerous herds of Buffalows. He, Cooacochee travelled from Florida to this point fifteen hundred miles and had seen the first buffalow, and scarcely any other kind of game. He also related the history of the Seminoley War, battles &c. He affirmed that it was Sam Jones who killed Genl. Thompson. He said in all the battles he fought, the officers of the soldiers (as he termed it) were brave commanders. At every fire the Seminoles gave the troops, they would retreat, and the officers would use the sword liberally on them and force them into lines.
It appears that Cooacoochee was during the war minister of war of the Seminoley Nation. Freezing this morning.
Saturday Jany 31st. Journey over a poor broken country, with scattering post oak, Crossed over a chain of Ridges, supposed to be the dividing ridge of the red Brazos, and Clear Fork. Country poor and unfit for human habitation.
This day 18 miles.
Cold night & frost. Water froze by fire.
Sunday Feby. 1st. Proceeded on journey South West zic-zac thro all kinds poor broken Country & after wander thro thickets & undergrowth almost inpenetrable pitched our camp on a Biyou running east. At this point a beautiful chain of mountains insight towards the South West. This day 10 miles. Freezing this morning by the fire.
Monday Feby 2nd. Resumed journey this morning South West thro poor broken prairie and scrubby woods & hills, and penetrated underbrush with difficulty; reached the beautifull mountain. It is at this point a chain of mounds & ordinary peaks with a little underbrush on them. We asscended the high-
est but the Clear fork of the Brazos westward not visible. Proceeded a south east course, and camped on a ravine of pure water of that direction. At this City of mounds commences prairie South east & west as far as the eye could reach. A poor country. This day 15 miles.
Last night Cooachee again resumed the history of the Seminoley War. He made Some hair breath escapes in the warrior battles. Made witty remarks of the whites. Captured a convoy of waggons, and took a drinking frolick with his warries with Spirits found in the waggons in a hammock.
Captured a soldier near Augustine Soldier took hold of his arms and said—friend. Replied, I am hold of you, & friend also and then slayed him.
Tuesday Feby 3rd. Continued our route down the limped ravine now east, thro a poor uneven prairie with muskit and live oak on the Same, now a rapid running creek and Camped after going 14 miles. South is a chain of mountains & high hills.
Wednesday, Feby 4th. Left the silvan stream this morning, and continued the general course of the same, passing through prairies and crossed a plain trail running north & south crossing the creek and down the same, and then came on Butler & Lewis trail, entered the same to their camping ground, and then encamped on the same Creek. Saw numerous herds of deer today. This day 24 miles.
Thursday Feby 5th. Following the trail of Butler & Lewis over a very BroKen prairie hills, and some level bottom prairie, and encamped at a ravine occupied by the above party. This day 15 miles. Cold rain today.
Friday Feby 6th. Journey continued on Butlers track, and came to a large creek, now swimming, and camped. This day 5 miles. Bread exhausted.
Saturday Febry 7th. Succeeded in swimming creek, and entered the trail of Butler over a beautiful prairie, and chain of high hills to north east and reached the same creek, where Butler & Company camped & there pitched our tent. Increase of our party.
At Camp two Kickapoos arrived, Mothaskuck & a young man who we invited to stay, & accepted. They informed us that they were in search of Butlers and Chickasaws, and by agreement we would travel together. Venison, mountain goat, & turky for supper, no bread. 10 miles.
Sunday Febry. 8th. Proceeded this morning on trail thro a beautiful prairie, mountains to the east, and camped on same creek, now called Cow River. This day 20 miles.
Increase of party again. Two more Kickapoos came to camp and joined us. They were in search of Chickasaws, who had appointed to meet them on this creek, but was disappointed. This party was sent by Precon, a chief. One son. Together at camp two Cherokees, four Kickapoos, one Seminoley & one Negro. Turky and venison for supper & no bread. Roasted on sticks.
Coodey & Wild Cat proceeded in advance of us to overtake Butler & Lewis and to report that Comanche Peak is at the head of Brazos instead of being opposite the mouth of Clear fork. Heavy white frost.
Monday Feby 9th. Our company set out on the trail, myself, Charles & four Kickapoos. Proceeded five miles, & came up with Coodey & Wild Cat, who had Killed a Buffalo Bull but too poor for use. At this point met with George Brenton & Bill Spaniard who had been sent out to search for us. They informed us that it was thirteen miles to Butler & Lewis encampment. Party then all proceeded to Camp & found all well. The party it appears lived in profusion, here on the choicest delicacies of the Wilds. Honey, Bear, Venison, Turkey, Buffalow flesh, fish &c. This day 20 miles.
The Party of Kickapoos were furnished with Supplies, Sugar & Coffee tobacco &c. The English, Cherokee, Creek, Chickasaw, Kickapoo, Some Spanish & Some Comanche, language were Spoken at this Camp.
Tuesday, Feby. 10th. This morning, all parties having come in, the Commissioners determined on crossing the Brazos at the junction of Cow Creek, and employed four Kickapoo pi-
lots and took up the line of march over a mountain and then a smooth level prairie. Saw numerous herds of buffalows, antelopes, deer grazing in this extension plain, which afforded fine grazing, and camped on a clear running stream. This day 15 miles.
A young man, Williamson, lost in the prairie. Comrs. Sent out parties to search, but returned without finding—
Wednesday Feby. 11th. This morning Kickapoos continued pilots, and party took the line of march for the Brasos, over a fine prairie. Numerous herds of all kinds game in sight. Arrived at a large creek, clear riffle. A new log house is here, and rail lot, the first seen since Red River.
Arrival of three Cadoo Indians. They wished to trade horses, Comrs. invited to repair to camp on the Brasos and there trade. Lost man not found, and several parties Sent again in search. Arrived at the Brasos, at a Cadoo encampment, proceeded to the fording, and took up on the bank. This day 15 miles.
Thursday Feby 12th. Coodey & self and Some others, crossed river & Some baggage, along the bank, and pitched camp. Gov. Butler & Seventeen men returned in Search of lost man. This day 1 mile. All crossed over, except party on Search.
Friday Feby. 13th. Last night, heavy rain. arrival of Cherokees at Camp, Young Guess & Jesse Oweings. Col. Lewis employed Young Guess & Doublehead to bear express to Coffee & Warren, Contractors to supply the meeting. This day remained in Camp.
Saturday and Sunday, the party remained in Camp, and some of the men made a canoe to cross the party who are on the West Side hunting lost boy. Numerous Indians on this River. Caddoos most numerous. On Monday the lost boy was discovered in the Prairie near Cow Creek, by a Cherokee & brought to Camp. (Cherokee name, Fooclistah).
Tuesday Feby 17th. This morning arrived Thorn & Reese, sent to search for lost boy. Arrival of travellers.
Mr. Cushingberry & Mr. Duval of Fort Smith. From St. Antonio, with Lipan (?) dresses—Short cape, part painted & Fringed.) Also Bill Spaniard & Johnson who had been sent out to search for lost, boy. 3 oclock—arrival of George Brenton and Fomaca John, hunters lost boy.
Wednesday Feby. 18th. This morning cold. Genl. Williamson & Captain Stickalubbee returned from hunting lost boy. This morning also Jesse Chisholm trader among the Comanches. Also Mr. Guess returned who had been sent express to Col. Coffee. Express failed to make the trip.
Thursday Feby. 19th. Remained in Camp. Last evening hail fell, & 10 oclock this morning still on the ground. Horses fed the second time with corn Since our departure from Red River, but scanty. Arrival of Lipan Indians from St. Antonio, with their Agent. Also Mr. Shaw, Delaware interpreter. A Lipan Lady with a fancy dress. Two Chiefs. These Chiefs are Cannibals or man Eaters.
Friday Febry. 20th. This day in camps. Govr. Butler, and three others (packman) Searching for boy, returned, after being out eight days. Returned by way of Buck Snort. Coodey & Self returned from a Buffalow hunt this day, without Killing game.
Three men returned from Comanche Peak, where supplies of Beef had been delivered for the Treaty. It has been found at last; but destitute of the enchantment. Low! it is a brushy hill!
I informed him thro Fooclista, a Cherokee linguist, that myself and Coodey had been appointed by the Cherokee Chief to accompany Gov. Butler & Lewis Comrs. to visit all Our Indian brethren in this Country. That we are instructed by our chief to pay them a friendly visit visit and to take them by the hand in behalf of the Cherokees. As to the particular objects of the Comrs. they would make that known when they are all met in Council.
Saturday Febry. 21st. Still in Camp. Party waiting for return express from Comanchee Peak, Sent to contractors to invite Indians to meet at this point.
Curious matters doing in Camps. A reward of $100.00 had been offered any person to bring in lost boy. The boy was found and brought in by a Cherokee named Chicken. The payment was assumed by the Commissrs. But a quibble was raised by the father and Gov. Butler that the boy found the Cherokee & had employed him only to bring him to Camp, and therefore was not entitled to the whole.
Sunday Feby. 22nd. This day Commrs. employed Jesse Chisholm & Miller to visit Comanches and to invite them to a Treaty. Party remained in camp.
Arrival of Toncaway Indians. A deputation of fifteen chiefs, Warriors & Women, armed with lances, bow & quiver, red painted, flaps dragging the ground, from St. Antonio, pitched camp.
A Council was held this evening at Comrs. tent. Lipan, Toncaway, Creeks & Cherokees present. Genl Wild Cat (Cooacoochee) addressed the meeting at considerable length. Informed them that two of the Seminoles (Creeks) Cherokees & Chickasas, had been sent by their nation to attend a treaty to be held by Gov. Butler & Col. Lewis who were present, with all the Indians in this part. He was rejoiced in his heart to see his red brothers of the West and shake them with the hand of friendship.—He and the others, had come a long way, to see them as he had never seen before, he was glad to enterchange a friendly talk with them. The Govt of the U. S. had sent his chiefs to have a good talk with them, to settle all questions of value to all parties, to prevent, crimes, horse stealing & war.—He was in was in far of these good things; he now hoped that they would all unite and make a good treaty for all parties.
He then spoke of the great good that grow out out of a treaty of amity & friendship. He said the Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, had recd. great benefit from such agreements. They had improved much—lived in Comfort—raised corn, Cattle & Hogs for their subsistence. They were all at peace in that quarter. Every person could travel there in peace—the road was clear of brush, and white by which all their red brethren pass to the council fire of the different tribes. A great
Council fire was kindled among the Cherokees four years ago when the path to that peace, and the Council fires of the others was made white, for all the Indians.
The Tonkawa War Chief replied thro a Spanish linguist, & also Shaw, Delaware & Comanche linguist.—and said that him and his party was glad to see them and recd. the Seminoley talk. It was a good talk, and he felt the talk in his heart because it was a good talk. He said on the question of adopting some measure to prevent horse stealing that his tribe was not guilty of these acts. It was some others that done these wrongs. The Lipan chief Submitted his views in Substance with the last.
Genl. Wild Cat then informed them, that when he left his Nation, to see his brothers, he was to return back in two months. Publick business of his nation would now require his return home, and would accordingly leave in the morning. The Council then closed by lighting and smoking the pipe of peace, by the parties present, and at a late hour adjd.
Monday Febry. 23rd. Commsrs. paid off Seven or eight packman Whites & Cherokees & left camp. Chicken, Cherokee who had brought in lost boy, recd. a draught on Bernard & Co. for goods amt. $100.00
Tuesday Feby. 24th. In camps. Drizzling rain today. Rode to Barnards Store, and assisted, Chicken a Cherokee to sell draught, given him by Comr. for bringing lost boy.
Wednesday Feby. 25th. This morning cold, cloudy & windey, annoyed much by inhaling the Smoke of our fire. Govr. Butler sick.
Thursday Feby. 26th. This morning in Camp, Cold cloudy &, windy & some ice by the fire.
Fail of Express again—Comrs. had sent two Caddoos on Express to the Peak, giving Contractors of their arrival & to invite Comanches to this point to Council—but returned without making the trip.—Two failures,—
Friday Feby 27th. Weather more tolerable last night & slept well. Coodey sick. Good breakfast this morning, fried turkey breast, bacon, Sop, biscuit & Coffee. Comrs. sent pack-
man to Bucksnort down Brasos, a Small town, 25 miles for meal. No news.
Arrival of Col. Coffee Contrr. from Peak, with news that messengers sent out to invite Comanches to a treaty have returned to Peak without finding any. However, Buffalow Hump Comanche Chief with Some two hundred of the tribe was in attendance at the Peak.
Saturday Feby 28th. This morning in camps windy but clearing away.—A Tonkawa girl, called Celeste, at Breakfast with us, with Some assistance made her meal modestyly.
Coodey, Col. Lewis & Self 4 others rode to store, & returned. A party of Tonkawa, & Caddoos, four on each side engaged at Bullet hiding, at four spike arrows a game, accompanied with spirited songs. The former is the lowest of human beings in North America—This is the last day of month & gone.
Sunday March 1st. This morning Govr. Butler & Coffee Coodey & Self and few packman Set out for peak. Lewis to remain until tuesday and then proceed on up. Lewis for Galveston. A cold ride thro muskit prairies, the equinoxial winds slapping our faces, and after riding 18 miles Camped on Aquilla Creek.
Monday March 2nd. This morning at 8 oclo party took their line of march, and left the Aquilla silvan ripples moving hasty down its onward course, thro generally handsome muskif Prairies, thro upper Cross timbers, and to the large Caddoo village on on the Brasos. Lodges appearing as hay stacks built of poles and grass. Few Caddoos were in their lodges. crossed the Brasos and ditched on a beautiful Creek clear as crystal & water as righteousness. This day 32 miles.
Tuesday March 3rd. Continued our march, over a rolling but romantic prairie & mounds, up the Brasos, and came insight of the long searched Peak & camped on a clear running Creek. Here killed two turkeys at a Kickapoo lodge lately abandoned. This day 25 miles.
Wednesday Mar. 4th. This morning a cloudless sky. Continued our route and reached Comanche Peak asscended the
same. It is a large nearly a square mound, one fourth of a mile in length, nearl square. Fired a salute to the tribes camped around. Descend and continued on trail and arrived at the Contractors Camp five miles from hence and there found a small partey of Comanches in attendance. Buffalow Hump the Principal chief is here. There are also Ketchees. A delegation of Creeks were also here headed by Chilly McIntosh & Tuchabatchee Mico. We are here at the end of the journey undertaken, on the 26th Decbr. & pitched our tent among all nations in the Desert. This day 14 miles.
Since our arrival two Kitchy chiefs paid us a formal visit. It was by embracing us face to face, with our arms over the shoulder and under the arm pit round, and repeated over the other shoulder & ending by placing the hand on the forehead & pressing the same to the breast. This was certainly the most affectionate ceremony in token of friend Ship offered to the party.
This evening an address was delivered by Buffalow hump to his lodges. We were informed by by the linguist Shaw that it was informing his people that his father meaning the Comr. had arrived, he had been waiting a number of days for him and he was now glad that he had come. Tomorrow we will have some talk with his father, and he expected to hear a good talk that would make all glad.
While at our tea, numerous women and children Squatty around us (Kitchies) and some men to beg a little coffee and biscuit.
Thursday March 5th. This day Govr had his first Conference with the Comanches Buffalow Princpl. Chief. A party of Chiefs, Wares, women & Children (150) in number appeared and seated themselves in a half moon. Yound men fantastically dressed painted with full heads of hair, well dressed in Comanche dress and trinketted and appeared well, tho somewhat effeminate.
After the usual enquiries of health, Butler informed him that him & Col. Lewis was sent to see there and assure them of their friendship. to transact business with them in order to do
away all bad things, and to prevent them & that it was their intention to see all the Comanchees, and to do this business with them all. He now wished him to cooperate with him to bring his people to this place, to send some of his warriors, and he would also send Some with them & furnish supplies.
To all this Buffalow respectfully nodded assent. Butler ended by saying that when his goods came up he would distribute some presents. The pipe of peace was lighted & smoked by the Chiefs. But no meeting was agreed on. But referred to the Cherokees, Creeks and them to fix time.
Buffalow Hump is an excellent looking man of 50 years, over the middle size & has a graceful address. His Comanche name. Pochonuquiet Mahcochocope chf.
Arrival of Witchitaws Friday Mar. 6th. A party of Witchitaws, Chiefs, Warriors, women & children all mounted & painted, Cahseroocah Principl. chief at their head, arrived this evening, from the east of Red River. Provision of Beef were furnished. Horses stolen from the Comsr. on the route were brot in by party.—
At tea our party was honored by Buffalow Hump, Micahchocossee & four Warriors. Gov. Butler, Hicks & Coody, they partook with modesty and took Coffee well.
Buffalow Hump & chiefs held another conference with Gov. Butler. They requested to to be informed as to the object of his visit to them. Gov. Butler told them in Genl terms that it was to Establish peace & friendship, and for the restoration of prisoners, &c.
To this they objected to the this place as the point of meeting, and remarked if they met the Comrs. it would be at the trading House, But they did not know that the Comanehees could be brought together. However they finally agreed to cooperate with the Comisrs & to send out for the Comanches to come in.
The Kitchies chief, warriors women & children came in file this and paid their personal respects to Gov. Butler, by embracing him by the chief as described before, women & children by the shaking of the hand.
Past time of boys. A company of twelve boys of Comanchees & Kitchees of 12 or 14 years old met on a prairie hill, engaged in kicking his adversary side ways barefooted and legging and throwing his adversary, by combining sometimes on one each party assisting until the first in contact was brot to the ground, by that time in a pile.
Saturday Mar 7th. A Council was this day held, by request of Gov. Butler, with the Comanchee chiefs, and all others in attendance. This meeting was intended to fix & agree on a time, for meeting of the Comrs. Pipe of peace was first smoked. Present Buffalow Hum Mocochossie Chiefs and other Comanchee Warriors. Coodey & Hicks Cherokees. Tocobatchee Mico & Genl. McIntosh Creeks, Caseroocah Witchetaws chief, & Kitchy chiefs.
E Hicks made the following address: To Buffalow Hump & Mocochossie Chief, Comanches. I have but a few words to say now. Gov. Butler who is he here & Col. Lewis who will be here in twenty days have been appointed by the Prest. U. S. their Great Father to have a friendly meeting and to have a talk with you. Govr. Butler went to the Cherokees and asked the Cherokee Chief to appoint too of his men to come with him to see their Brothers the Comanches. The Cherokee Chief appointed us and we have come & taken you by the hand. Our hearts are rejoiced to get acquainted with our Brothers the Comanches. We are natives and so are; you, and we consider you our brothers. The hands of the Cherokees & the Comanches are white, we have never done each other any wrong, and what we have to say cannot injure you
Gov. Butler has asked us to hold a council with you today, and to agree with you on the time and place where the Comanches, and the other tribes shall meet the Comrs. of their great father. To us we do not care where the meeting is held; if they choose to have it elsewhere than this place, we are willing to acquiesce in their appointment. We will attend at any place you shall coose as the place of meeting. We know you are able to do your own busi- and you will do what is right.
However we wish for all the Comanches to meet their white Brothers the Comrs. for that is the way to keep peace. to adjust
all matters right. We now ask you to give out the broken days, and to name the place of meeting & to bring their people there.
William S. Coodey next addressed the Comanchees. He said the President of the U. S. had sent commissioners to have a friendly meeting with the Comanchees and other tribes. Some of them had made treaties with the texas govt, but Texas had now become a part of the U. S. and therefore & all Indian business was placed now in the hands of the President to be managed. We know these men, they are good men; whatever they promise they will perform. Their great father is the President of the U. S. they are rich & strong, when they say they will perform a thing they are able to do it. The Cherokees have had much entercourse with the whites, and if their advice is desired by them on any question they would give their brothers good advice. We have come a long way to see you and we would be glad that you and all your people would come to the treaty.
Genl. Chilly M Intosh next addressed the Council in behalf of the Creeks present.—
Brothers, Comanches. Govr. Butler who is now here, & Col. Lewis who will be here in twenty days, have been appointed by the President to hold a Treaty with the Comanchees. Govr. Butler applied to the Creek Chief to appoint two delegates to come with him to pay the Comanchees a friendly visit and be present at the treaty. We are now here and we are glad to take you by the hand as our Brothers. Said that it good to meet and hold friendly talks. He desired that they would to meet the Comrs. at a place & time convenient to themselves. The Cherokees, Creeks, & Chickasaw delegations would all be present, and see them meet the Comrs. do the business of their great Father the President. What these Comrs. will tell you will be the words of truth, & it is the Same as if the President was here himself and spoke the words with his own mouth.
The Comanchee Chiefs followed with an appropriate & brief reply. Brothers. We have heard talks and they are good, and we assure you all that we are glad to hear what you have said & become acquainted. We have for a long time heard a good report of the Cherokees, but never had an opportunity of doing any business with.
We have heard your talks and we now say that the Comanchees here have decided to meet the Comrs. at the Trading house (75 miles below on brasos) and that we will be there in attendance and all our people the second new moon. We do not count by days. Kept our time by moons (1st May)
The Pipe of Peace & friendship was smoked and concluded the Council. The Witchitaws, & Kitchees who were present were asked by the cherokees & Creeks, if the place & time appointed for the treaty was agreable to them. They replied they would give an answer tomorrow.
Gov. Butler then distributed presents to the Comanchee chief and Captains, in Blankets, blue cloth and other articles. Jim Shaw, delaware, interpreter Nancy, Witchitaw girl Do. both speaking the english. Speeches in english, then Tendered Comanche & Wichitaw. Kitchies speaking the latter language.
Comanchee Peak Sunday Mar. 8th. This day moved our camp, and pitched across west, & breakfasted but without bread. Fine cloudless sky. Comanches in motion to the far west. A part remained today receive presents. The women & children Seventy in number formed a circle in the Prairie. Blankets Stripes were & cups were given them. Half of the women looked well.
Cochomiquiet and chiefs attended at Comrs. quarters. He related the capture of his outfit & child by the Spaniards at Rio Grand one year ago on visit to that place, to adjust all matters interesting to the parties. Wished Gov. Butler to interpose and recover them.
Gov. Butler promised to write to the Mexican minister at Mexico for her restoration. This was one mode. He could also apply to the Govt officers at St. Antonio to recover her, and promised to make the necessary steps.
E. Hicks & Genl. McIntosh remarked to the Comanchee Chief, that this was the only proper course which could ensure success, and that they had unlimited Confidence in Gov. Butler to make the necessary efforts. That we could assure them that that Gov. Butler would Succeed, but we knew, that he would do all that
could be done to succeed. The cherokees could of themselves act, not have any relations with the mexicans, and their remote location prevented them.
Mr. Hicks suggested that her recovery could be effected thro Genl. Taylor Com. r at Corpus Christi. He was a great good man.
Buffalow replied he was now convinced that all our talks were good. He now understood better how all things were, he had now light, and we had given him more sense. Meeting adj. and Comanchees took the line of march to the west, and were still passing our tent one hour after dark.
Comanchee Peak Monday Mar. 9th. This day but few Indians in camp. Witchetaws and Kitchies, and a party of Wacoes arrived.
Comanchee Peak Tuesday Mar. 10th. This morning in camp, with a cloudless sky & pleasent. Coodey dangerously ill.
Camanchee Peak Wednesday Mar. 11th. A grand Conference was this day held by Gov. Butler Cherokees, & Creek, delegates, with the Con-e-ated bands of the Witchetaws, Wacoa, Tonkawas & Kitchees chiefs and captains. Nancy, Witchitaw girl, linguist. A circled was formed in the prairie with bufalow rugs for seats, where the different parties seated themselves.
In the centre, there were seats of the same and assigned to Comr. and the Cherokee & Creek Delegates. The Pipe of peace was present by the Coms. to the audience, and smoked. Gov. Butler then made known the object of his visit. His appointment and Col. Lewis by their great Father the Prest. To Establish permanent peace, to prevent horse stealing and then surrender, and to patronise them in their improvt. &c &c.
E. Hicks next addressed the meeting, & said that he was truly glad to see his Brothers and smoke the pipe of peace. This was the way to keep and preserve friendship. Their Brother the Comr. had informed the intention of his visit. The President had sent him to give them this talk and it was a good talk. The words of the President was true and was always good. The Cherokees knew that it was so. The Cherokees had carried war
against the whites a great while ago and had much harm against the whites and they had also suffered. The President then told them to stop and they did so. He told them to learn to farm & to raise stock and they done so, and they had done well ever since, &c &c. Chilly McIntosh Creek delegate next addressed the meeting.
Ketchkerooka Tewahana chief spoke in answer of his approbation of all that was said by Comr. Cherokees & Creeks Said they were all good &c. Aquahquash Wacoe Chief next Spoke Same &c &c. Kitchy Chiefs next. Cah Se roocah Witchetaw addressed Comr. and said that he was glad & his Captains were also pleased to hear their Brother talk the talk sent them by their great Father the Prest. The Witchetaws were the friends of the U. S. They had once made a Treaty with him and that had observed it, and since he had a new talk his friendship was now stronger &c &c. He enquired to what date did the Comr. extend This demand for stolen horses. Reply. Two years back. After the promise of Small presents tomorrow the conference adjd. to meet at Barnards Trading House 25 Apl.
Cam. Peak Thursday Mar. 12th. This day in camp, cold & windy. Gov. Butler distributed goods to the Witchetaws, Kitchie Tewakanas, & Wacoes.
Camanchee Peak Friday Mar. 13th. This morning clear & pleasant. Eat breakfast alone on fried turkey breast, biscuit & hot coffee.
Wedding last night. The gentleman at my elbow was present at this marriage ceremony. A Lipan Belle, dressed in fringed buckskin jacket, and also fringed bootees ornament with slay bells, and her ladyship painted thickly painted dress and all, & a Kitchy Bow marched through the lodges with a drum beaten by friends walking locked covered with one rugg until a circuit was made. There being no objection from any quarter they were man & wife.
Camanchee Peak Saturday Mar. 14th. This morning Cold & frost. Visited by the Witchetaw Chief Cah se roocah. He marked down on the ground the location of the Cherokees, Creeks Choctaws and Witchefaws. He indicated by Significant Signs,
the great friend of his people to the nations Stated, wished to have a free communication always, to keep the road open and hold fast to each other. Singing all night by the Indians. Said by Madam Rumor of another public marriage of a Tonkawa girle by a public march of the pair thro lodges.
Twenty beeves furnished the Wacoes, Witchetaws, Tewakanses & Kitchees for their substnce homewards. Went Bear hunting with Gov. & Caddoos without succees.
Cammanchee Peak Sunday Mar. 15th. In camp this morning Fine weather. Our camp were entertained last with dances, & singing nearly the whole night. Arrival of Pah you cah, a princpl.. Camanchee Chief. Col. Williams Caddoo agent and Pah You cah with a mexican prisoner his waiter, and six Lippans arrived & Pitched their tents mear to ours.
Camanchee Peak Monday Mar. 16th. This morning in camp. Weather fine & clear but cold last night. Wacoes, Tewakanas, & Kitchies nearly all gone.
Requested by Gov. Butler to see Cahsewoocah & Witchetaw Chief-apprize of his indisposition today. And informed them, that it was thirty five days to the Treaty to be held Barnards Trading house.
Replied if his Brother did not come he would. If Kiowas came by his town he would come with them. Pah you cah called this morning, & intrduced himself, and I did the same, in Camanchee court style by hugging, one arm over the should and the other below the arm pit, and then to the other shoulder & pit.
Council was called by Gov. Butler. Present Gov. Butler Comr. Pah acah Camanchee Chief Hicks Coodey Cherokee delegates Tuckabatchee Micco, Creek Do Three Lippan Captains from Mexico Jim Shaw linguist.
Gov. Butler, Briefly remarked to the Camanchee Chief that himself & Col Lewis had been appointed by their Great Father the President of the U. S. to see all the Camanchees & other tribes in this quarter and assure of their friendship. He had come to propose a Treaty first first—to establish permanent peace,
to remove all causes of complaint to allow annual payments in return and to patronize them in their improvement.
William S. Coodey, Said that Gov. Butler had informed him of his appt. by the Prest. Gov. Butler was instructed by the President to associate with him the Cherokees, Creeks Choctaws & Chickasaws to be present at their Treaty and to see that everything was done fair & to assure them of their Constant friendship. (to be filled out)
E. Hicks addressed Pahucah. Brother. You are now informed that we have appointed to visit you and your people, and to assure of our sincere friendship. We only knew each other before by name, but now we have seen each and know and feel that we are friends. Our meeting does our hearts good, and gives it light as bright as the Sun now Shining On us. Your Great the President has appoint his to hold a Treaty with you, and he has told you in part what it is, and the parteculars, he will tell you at the great meeting at Barnards Trading House on the 25 Apl.
The reason that your Great Father has sent these Comrs. is that Texas who was heretofore independent, has now been annexed to the U. S. They are now all one people. All the Indian Business now belongs to the Prest. Texas cannot manage Indian Affairs.
The President has been inform that the Camanchees Wacoes & others have had trouble with the Texans. The Prest. now sends his Captains to Establish a permanent peace, remove all causes of trouble, the most important is to agree on a Boundary line to Separate you and the Whites. I request that you and your chief consider the necessity of the question. If left open the whites will settle up all these rivers, Colorado, Brasos, Red River which will eventually produce difficulties between you and the whites. In return the U. S. will make you annual payments of goods and implements of husbandry. (to be filled out.
Pah u cah answered these several speeches by stating that he came along way to See his white brothers the Cherokees & Creeks, and he assured them that he was pleased to hear all their talks and he must say were good. But it would be pre-
mature in him to determine on the several questions to which his attention had been called. But I shall consider their importance, and the great meeting I shall be prepared to make known my decision. But I shall also expect to hear all your propositions at the next meeting before I decide.
Three Lipan Chiefs Present from Mexico. Gov. Butler informed them the objects of his mission, and assured them of his good feeling for them. He would give them small presents and meat while here, and refer matters to the other meeting.
They replied that they were from Mexico Rio Grande, they had also been oppressed and could not live there & had entered the great Prairie. Their chief, when informed of this meeting had sent them to see you & inform you of our Situation and assure you of our friendship.
Ludicrous scene in this meeting; At the meeting of Pah u cah and Tuchabatchee Micco Creek delegate, the Court Salutation of the Camanchees was performed by the hugging one arm over the shoulder and under, and then repeated to the other shoulder & arm pit with a squeeze. But in performing the honorable act, the chiefs found themselves opposed by their size, both being corpulent, each party could notreach the shoulder of his friend, being apart by their big bellies, and after one or two efforts to the loud gratification of the audience, and the honorable chiefs Succeed to reach each other at arms length, in the manner stated.
Camanchee Peak Tuesday Mar. 17th. In camp, eat breakfast of hot coffee, roasted lean Beef corn bread & biscuit. A feast and concert were given last night, by the Kitchees, at a lodge near our tent. Two kettle fulls of Beef, and after slight boiling, was emptied on Buffalow saddle skin. There was a choir of some four five men as singers, with a rattling gourd to make time, and two women, Singing the same tune in trebble. The music consisted alltogether of tunes—he was was a careah, he was a carah &c thro this to another, of but little variation but afford a party present, much satisfaction The singing was novel, tho affording but little music, the deficiancy was made up of the gourd time peace, & the sweet voices of the women. This
fest was given to Pah a cah, Chief, present. After the meat had evaporated the hot steam poiled on the saddle skin, the chief singer aportioned the peaces to the performers & the ch—pectators excluded, and if refreshments was ever used up it was by the aid of the power of the teeth.
Camanchee Peak Wednesday Mar. 18th. This morning Pah ucah Chief, Lippans, Kitchees, & Caddoes, Gov. Butler and party struck Camps, packed mules, and separated. Pah u cah for the Prairie to bring the Comanches to the Treaty. Our party of Chickasaw and Some Lappans & Tonkaway, crossed over to the East of Brasos, about to miles & pitched our lodges. Wm. S. Coodey now on his way home in consequence of ill health. Pah a cah, when mounted on his mule beckoned to me, and hugged me in Court rule, Said, the talk I had given him was good & in his heart. Farewell to the Emperor of the Desert.
Thursday morning Coodey started home. Hicks went hunting, and returned fatigued without Seeing any game. Cold & rainy. The next day the party struck camp and proceeded twenty miles east of Brasos over a Broken Prairie thro a narrow neck of Cross timbers, so often penetrated and pitched tents on a creek.
Saturday Mar. 21st. Our camp was reinforced late in the evening, by six or seven Lipans, five Tonkawas, latter the lowest condition of Indians, begging to a late hour. We were on the march early this morning Indian file, cold and windy, over an endless broken prairie, to Nolands river, and their camped. The Creek delegation who had left us at the Peak, for the trading here came up and camped. They had stopped on the way to hunt. This day 20 miles.
Sunday Mar 22nd. We were on the route early. Gov. Butler, McLaughlen & Self went by way of Caddoe village where at 11 oclo & remained to 2 oclo & went got up with the party at camp. The Caddoo Hills were covered with horses, they being now fine for grazing, presented a lively green as far as the eyes could reach. This day 12 miles.
Monday Mar 23rd. This, morn, I returned back to the Caddo in search of lost cattle. Arrived at the camps of Chick-
asaw Delegation where I paid my respects to Tom Fuller, and broiled buffalow meat very hard and hammered with a stone by the chief to make soft. Being hungry a New York dinner would not have went down better.
Tuesday Mar. 24th. At night with the chiefs, and being a cold night could not sleep. Same operation for breakfast by beating dry buffalow meat and coarse Tom Fuller. No bread, coffee nor sugar.
Wednesday Mar. 25th. In the Prairie with Doublehead hunting stock. This was a cold night. Water froze by the fire. Our fare a small peace of broiled venison.
Thursday Mar 26th. This morning set out with Doublehead on search and hunting two or three hours. Doublehead returned and left me Solitary and alone in the endless Prairie. Entered the Sources of Towakana Creek, and camped on it, alone, & my mule.
Friday Mar 27th. Continued down alone to the Brasos and came up with Gov. Butlers Camp, and joined them. Found Col. Lewis was here from Austin.
At Camp near Cher. Hill, Brasos Sunday Apl. 19th. Nothing particular happened since our return from Peak to this place. Building camps, stockades & purchasing Supplies for the meeting.
This day Jack Harry, Dela. and others Sent to the Camanchees on the Colorado returned, with a white Boy Dutch purchased from Camanchees. They bring news, that the Camanchees had declined attending meeting Commrs. as promised, on acct of a war party having killed texas Citizens—and their promises to meet in Consequence failed— The party while among Camanchees, purchased a captive, dutch boy 4 or 5 years old brought to camp.
This day Comrs. dispatched Jack Harry Dela, and three Lipans to Colorado to the Camanchees to insist on their meeting Comrs. at this point, (agreed upon), but could not cross Brazos river it being very [high], they returned to camp. This day clear & hot. Numerous Cadoos with their Chief Osee Mana (chief) Cherokee, Lipans & others about camp.
Saturday Apl. 25th— This day Comrs. dispatched Jack Harry, two other Dels. & two Lipans to the Colorado with a message to the Camanchees, requesting them to meet the Comrs. at this place as early as practicable, & with assurance of their continued friendship. This day weather fine & 9 oclo Sun eclipsed.
This evening Two Head (Cherokee) and a Dela arrived from the Camanchees near the source of Washita River sent on express by the messengers Sent out by Comrs. Wms. Chisholm & Reese to invite Camanchees to the treaty.
The express brought a letter from them stating that deputations from three bands would be in attendance about the 12th May. They were 14 days on the journey.
Texas, the constitutional & conventional limits of Mexico, near the riches of Patosi, and the birthright of Camanchee, what a land of Captives! Now the United States.
Camanchee girls & prisoners taken at a treaty of peace St. Antonio and elsewhere by the Texans have been brot to camp by the agents employed by Comrs. to be returned to their people. This is the Country of Captives the weeping Camanchee girls, held in duress by the Texans the silvan face of anglo Saxon Sons & daughters and the Sons of the Montezumas & Guatimozin cursed and driven, traded, as slaves by the roving & haughty Camanchee. O, what a country of freedom in name, a nations birthright to two miles of African Slaves.
If the heart can Sicken at this Trojan War of human rights, a prostitution of humanity, it is a malady without cure to the philanthropist.
Apl. 28th, 1846—This day Majr. Neighbors,4 Lipan Agent returned from Austin, with news of the killing of Lipans by the Texans on the Colorado, which caused the most heart rending
4Robert S. Neighbors served for a number of years as agent for the Indians of Texas, with the title of Supervising Agent for Texas Indians. In 1859 he was engaged in escorting 1000 Waco, Tawakoni, Tonkawa, Caddo, and 300 Comanche Indians to the Wichita Agency where, on September first, he delivered them to the agent, Samuel A. Blaine. Neighbors then started on his return to San Antonio, and at Fort Balknap he was killed by a white man who resented Neighbors' loyalty and defense of his Indians charged with atrocities on the whites, who refused to discriminate between the reserve Indians under the agency and the Comanche and other wild Indians of the prairies.
national mourning by the Lipan women encamped here, loud with their shrieks which lost their sound in the distant heaven.
My tent door and fire side has been constantly thronged with Lipan naked boys, with callico clouts dragging to the ground, old grannies, children, and misses dressed in buck Skin Capes and petticoats & bootees, all elegantly fringed and would be a rich dress any where. The men performed a portion of the labor, packing meet on their horses, and carrying water in leather skins and guts, the women at lodges, sewing leather.
Sunday May 3rd.—The messengers (Genl. McIntosh, Creeks) Sent out to meet and escort the Camanches to Camp, returned late this evening on the other side of the river and fired a signal which was returned at my tent.
Monday May 4th.—This morning raining in torrents. Col Lewis Self & a number of Caddoes, whites, & Del. rode down to river to meet Camanchees. Returned to tent on act. of rain. They came afterwards, headed by Buffalow Hump, two Captains, & five women & pitched their lodges near mine.
May 9th.—This day was a busy day with all hands The Camanchees headed by Mocochokie principal Chief, and At. Anna War Chief from the Colorado were reported to be on the Other bank of the Brasos. Col Lewis, Delegates, and many other Indians, rode dawn to the river to escort them to camp. Sometime was occupied in crossing the baggage in canoes & swimming horses, and then proceed to our encampment and pitched their lodges within fifty yards of ours, numbering about 200 souls men, women & children. G. W. Kendall5 of the Picayune is here a "looker-on in Venice."
Great Dances—This evening there a general move among the tribes at dancing. Cherokee dance was given at the Caddo lodges where there was a numerous party to witness the feat.
5George Wilkins Kendall of the New Orleans Picayune was a member of the ill-fated Santa Fe′ Expedition of several hundred men, who left Austin, Texas, for Santa Fe′ in the summer of 1841. Their purpose was partly military and partly commercial. These unfortunate men were taken captive by the Mexicans who subjected them to inhuman outrages, and conveyed them as prisoners to the City of Mexico. Wilkins described the experiences of this expedition in his two-volume work entitled "Narrative of the Texas-Santa Fe′ Expedition."
There was considerable animation in the running around the fire encircled with a ring of three deep, of fine looking men and women. Within a rod was a Caddo party at the same pleasure, of the same form but tardy comparatively.
Near our lodges was a Tonkawa dance, Sing loud to a drum beat with much vigour, and danced until sun rise this morning 10th—instant. This dance consisted of men & women, all singing three or four feet deep and from ten to twenty in length—Every moving creature appeared to be in animation, and may be looked as a jubilee of the tribes. The Camanchees commenced a concert, by a choir of Singers, but of short duration.—
Since writing the above, the dance was continued by the Lipans & Tonks. Consisting of a squadron of singers men with drum, rattling gourd, an beating on a couple of raw Bison skins keeping time with the Song. the dance was by the women in front & some girls with a slow step, one foot down and the other, so as to make a rocking motion of the females, enlivenly every few minutes by a shrill yell of the females, and proceeded to & thro the Camanchee encampment. This feet I am told is given in honor of the Camanches, congratulating them in their success of killing a Spaniard. This I term a military Ball or War dance.
Tuesday 12th May.—Arrival of Pah a cah and other Camanchee chiefs, Kitchies, Wacoes, Witchitaws, and Tewahcanoes, appearing about two hundred in all, & pitched their lodges around ours, which now appeared like the encampment of a large army.
Comrs. All the indians present to an interview in the shed prepared for the meeting All the delegations took their and Comrs. nearly in the middle. The pipe of peace was offered by the Comrs. and smoked by all the chiefs.
Comrs. then informed the meeting that they had been sent by the Prest. to see them and meet them in friendship. They were glad to see them and thanked them for so full attendance. Interpreter, Jim Shaw, for Camanchees. Lewis Sanchez in Caddo & Spanish. Comrs. then informed them that they would meet them tomorrow and deliver to them the talk of the P. U. S. at 9 oclo. Meeting adjd.
A supper was served for Chiefs by the Comrs. consisting of large pones of Bread and boiled beef, piled on a tent cloth spread on the ground weighing at least about two hundred pounds. Three Kettles of Coffee. The numerous party seated themselves on the ground, Camanchees, Wacoes, Cadoes, and all other Indian delegations Some fantastically painted, some naked, up to the fine dressed Creek and Chickasaws, and bread stuff being scarce, the time was well attend, and soon exhausted the large pones of corn bread & chunks of beef.—
Wednesday May 13th. Comrs. met this day the bands of Camanchees, Witchetaws & Lepans and all others. Submitted them propositions for a Treaty of permanent peace & friendship & boundary. Speeches by E. Hicks. Interpreters, Jim Shaw & Conner in Camanchee Sanchez in Spanish & Caddo and Nancy in Witchitaw. Comrs. request the Indians for a definite answer. Adj. over until tomorrow.
Friday May 15th. Comrs. met the Camchy Indians this morning. Pahahucah spoke in behalf of the Comanches tribes, They were satisfied with the talk from the Prest U. S. Cherokees &c. They had no objections to a Treaty of peace and they were satisfied of the arrangements by Comrs. to visit the Prest and there close a treaty. The Great Spirit was a witness to his words, and they were true. He would never cease to mantain peace. Others may violate it but he would preserve it.—
Saturday May 16th—Comrs. met the Comanchees & other tribes this morning which occupied the whole day. A treaty of peace & friendship was Signed by them. But objected to a boundary line and defered that question until their visit to Washington—
At this, the meeting for a Treaty adjd. Sine die. To co Batchee Micco delivered a long speech and presented the assembled indians with tobacco & wampum as the emblem of peace.
The Treaty was signed, and the Indians notified by Comrs. that they would deliver them some presents in goods at the trading House on tomorrow. Eight miles hence—
Sunday May 17th.—Comanches in every direction Striking their tents, women packing, horses—recd. their goods & drawing off into the boundless desert.
Monday May 18th—Comrs. determined to move this day to the trading house eight miles and close the business of the mission there, we were all confusion, striking our tents, cooks packing—Reclkan furniture, packman drawing mules to and driving off, away darted Ben with some Cherokees to the trading house.
Tuesday May 19th.—Call on Comrs. for a settlement for my Services as a delegate and had much misunderstanding and submitted to a Settlement entirely different from our understanding with Govnr. Butler, viz. at $2.00 pr. day instead of $3.—which had been promised. At Col. Lewis request Consent to remain this day.
Comrs. in great confusion at this moment—B. Hump one of the delegates applied to Visit the Prest. refused to proceed—St. Anna only complying. They are in Council on the matter.
The end is now Come to go home. Is my wife and children alive? I pray heaven to protect me home, away, away, away. Double Head and his brother my Companyons home, 500 miles—
Santy June 5th, 1846—Arrived this evening after a long fatiguing journey by way of the Chickasaws & Creek nations through hot Prairies, swimming Rivers and creeks, but keeping excellent health.