By CAROLYN THOMAS FOREMAN
The name of Leavenworth has been associated with Oklahoma since May, 1834, when Gen. Henry Leavenworth took command at Fort Gibson. He accompanied the celebrated dragoon expedition in the summer of that year and died, as the result of an accident, July 21, at Camp Smith, twenty-five miles west of the Washita River.
General Leavenworth's son, Jesse Henry Leavenworth, saw much more service in this part of the country but he has been over-shadowed by his father. The Leavenworths were natives of Vermont, and Jesse was born at Danville March 29, 1807. He was appointed to the Military Academy July 1, 1826, and on his graduation in July, 1830, was assigned to the Fourth Infantry as a second lieutenant.
A letter in the Old Records Division of the war department, written by General Leavenworth to the department June 14, 1831, from West Point says: "I am distressed to learn that my son very foolishly resigned his commission . . . Will you do me the favor to prevent his resignation from being accepted if consistent with your convenience & views of propriety." The influence of the General held the young officer in the service and on August 18, 1831, he was transferred to the Second Infantry. He served in garrisons at Baton Rouge, Sackett's Harbor and Macinac and he took part in the Black Hawk War against the Sac Indians in 1832.1
Young Leavenworth married Elvira Caroline Clark, daughter of Festus Clark, of Sackett's Harbor, New York, June 12, 1832, and four sons and four daughters were born to them between 1833 and 1853.2
1Biographical Register of the Officers and the Graduates of the U. S. Military Academy at West Point, N. Y. by Bvt. Major-general George W. Cullum, 1868.
Leavenworth evidently was still discontented in his profession and he tendered his resignation from the army October 8, 1836,3 through Lieut-col. Alexander Cummings of the Second Infantry, who requested Gen. Roger Jones, adjutant general of the U. S. Army, to allow his services to terminate at the end of the year.4 There was no father to intervene this time and Leavenworth went to Chicago where he was employed as a civil engineer from 1836 to 1858.
Andreas, in his History of Chicago, states that Capt. J. H. Leavenworth was acting as agent in charge of the harbor works under Capt. T. J. Cram in 1839 and when the Chicago Cavalry was organized in 1842 Leavenworth was made a captain in the regiment. After 1858 he was a lumber merchant in Chicago. In 1862 he was claimed as a citizen of Wisconsin and the Milwaukee Sentinel urged his appointiment as a brigadier general because of his "military education . . . experience, and the fact that he now has a large body of Wisconsin boys under his command . . . "5
Leavenworth was commissioned a colonel by Secretary Stanton February 17, 1862, and was given power to select his own officers. The Denver paper approved of all the Milwaukee Sentinel wrote but clamored to have Leavenworth appointed a general from Colorado. Leavenworth went west by way of Fort Leavenworth, taking with him a battery of six brass guns captured at Fort Donelson. There were 150 men in the battery and more than 100 horses were necessary to haul the guns to Denver. The force in his command included four troops of cavalry and three steam boats carried the arms, ammunition, men and horses from St. Louis to Fort Leavenworth.6
Colonel Leavenworth's command arrived in Denver June 2 "and passed through the principal streets, all looking excellent, noble and warlike. The Colonel . . . rode along at the head of the column. . . "7 The force was encamped on Larimer Street, about two miles from Denver and the fashionable folk of the
city rode or drove out to visit the camp. "From Colonel Leavenworth and Major Saville along the ranks to Adjutant [J. K.] Kimball [of Milwaukee] and the fine-looking 'full privates,' there is a style of sociability and sense not often to be observed or enjoyed at military encampments."8
Governor Evans kept Leavenworth busy examining mountain passes with a view to the construction of roads, in settling a disturbance in Trail Creek District and in an expedition against a band of Indians who had plundered every house for several miles along the Platte River. The marauders, very much frightened when Colonel Leavenworth appeared suddenly among them with one of his brass guns and a company of riflemen, agreed to leave immediately for their hunting grounds on the Republican River.9
In August Colonel Leavenworth was called to Fort Larned, Kansas, to settle some trouble with a band of Pawnees who had held up a government wagon train and refused to allow it to proceed until their wants in provisions and presents were satisfied.10
On November 13, 1862, Colonel Leavenworth with his Second Regiment and Colonel Larimer with the Colorado Third held a grand military review and paraded through the streets of Denver.11 Leavenworth made a trip to the east which ". . . . has resulted advantageously in the military interests of Colorado and we are glad to know the Department endorses his every act . . ."12 When the Colonel left Denver on March 22 to join his regiment at Fort Lyon the newspaper regretted his departure ". . . but wherever he may go, we have abiding confidence that his private and official conduct will reflect nothing but credit and honor upon the Territory of which he has been a most worthy and estimable citizen. We regard the Colonel as one of the very best military men of the Territory . . . his good judgment and decision of character
11Ibid., November 30, 1862, p. 2, col. 2, from the daily of Friday, November 14. In the Colorado Historical Society at Denver there is a handsome silver-mounted saddle which was presented to Colonel Leavenworth by some of his friends on December 2, 1862 (The Rocky Mountain News, December 4, 1862, p. 1, cols. 1 & 2).
have won for him the respect and esteem of all with whom he has had business relations."13
Early in April companies A, B, E, G, H & I started for Fort Leavenworth and May 13, 1863, Capt. George West wrote from Camp Carlton, near Fort Larned, that Leavenworth was using every exertion to have his command mounted and that "with such officers as Col. Leavenworth and Lt. Col. Dodd . . . . we will not fear to play the game with any other regiment in the service."14
Captain West in his bulletin to the News on June 7, 1863, reported the Headquarters Battalion of the Second Colorado Volunteers in camp about a mile from Fort Scott, Kansas. They had marched to that post by way of Fort Riley and Fort Leavenworth and were awaiting orders from General Blunt. They expected to be ordered to Fort Gibson to reinforce Colonel Philips who was reported to be in danger of an attack.15 One week later "The 'Second' Colorado [was] in a fight . . . with the rebels on the road between Fort Scott and Gibson, and about seventy-five miles from the former post. Our Colorado boys were attacked by a superior force which they repulsed . . . ." One man was killed and sixteen wounded.
At the same time three or four thousand Kiowa and Comanche Indians had surrounded Fort Larned. There were only two hundred soldiers in the garrison and Colonel Leavenworth sent an urgent request for more troops. The Indians were about to make hostile demonstrations when Leavenworth ordered out a battery of 12-pounders and commanded his men to open fire. The Indians immediately asked for a parley and finally agreed to leave the vicinity.16
Colonel Leavenworth commanded the troops along the Santa Fé road, with headquarters at Fort Larned, for four months after which he applied for orders to join his regiment under General Blunt. "The Battalion of the Second, under Lt. Col. Dodd, has
won for the regiment imperishable laurels in the fields of Cabin Creek and Honey Springs, and later in Blunts last campaign into Arkansas, and if Colonel Leavenworth is permitted to take with him the balance of his regiment, to be united with the six companies already in the field, we shall expect a record of glorious deeds unsurpassed in the annals of the war.
". . . Very few officers in the service have so good a faculty of managing the Indians of the prairie, and it is the universal opinion of the officers at Fort Larned that his superior tact and firmness has prevented a bloody war with the roving tribes. At one time during the past summer the post was surrounded by several thousand armed and painted warriors, who threatened the massacre of the garrison, when Col. Leavenworth, with the utmost coolness and bravery, left the entrenchments and went among them, alone and unarmed, called the chiefs around him and succeeded in pacifying them . . ."17
Like a bolt from the blue came word that Colonel Leavenworth and three of his officers had been dishonorably discharged from the service. "Their offense was 'enlisting men under false pretenses;' that is, raising the Battery Company without sufficient authority to do so . . ."18
"A correspondent from a St. Louis paper. . . writing from the crossing of the Arkansas river on the road from Kansas City to Santa Fe, very severely censures Colonel Leavenworth for Indian annoyances along that route . . . the Colonel pursued a temporizing policy—giving them presents and encouraging them to stay in the neighborhood . . . the Indians have remained along the road . . . From begging they have taken to demanding, and passing trains, unless strong in numbers, are subjected to impositions but little short of robbery. . ."19
It is difficult to understand such treatment of a veteran officer, but from the newspapers of that period one is convinced that there was much political influence involved in the appointment of officers in the volunteer regiments and no doubt there
18Ibid., October 21, 1863, p. 1, col. 1; McLain's Battery by Maj. J. H. Nankivell in The Command Post Colorado National Guard, March, 1931, p. 105.
was jealousy of Leavenworth because he came from a remote state. An order in the war department files states that the "2nd. Col Vols and 3rd Col. Vols. are consolidated, to be designated the 2nd Col vols Cavalry."20
On October 19, 1863, Colonel Leavenworth turned over the command of Fort Larned to Capt. J. W. Parmeter of the 12th Kansas Volunteers. The secretary of war, by Special Orders No. 128, March 26, 1864, gave Colonel Leavenworth an honorable discharge from the service of the United States "As of date of Special Orders, No. 431, series of 1863," which was signed by E. D. Townsend, Assistant Adjutant General.21
Colonel Leavenworth's regiment, which bore the picturesque name of Rocky Mountain Rangers, was supplied with a mountain howitzer for fighting the Indians. A new route between Union and Fort Lyon, established by Leavenworth and Capt. George West in August, 1862, was named "Leavenworth Cut-off", while a high peak above Georgetown, Colorado, is called Mount Leavenworth in honor of the officer who protected a frontier a thousand miles in extent from hostile Indians during the Civil War.22
In 1864 Colonel Leavenworth was appointed Indian agent of the Kiowas, Comanches, and part of the Cheyenne tribe.23 The Kiowas resided on the upper Yellowstone and Missouri rivers at one time but later occupied lands on the upper Arkansas and Canadian in Colorado and Oklahoma. Their passage of the Arkansas River was opposed by the Comanches and a war followed. When peace was concluded the Kiowas removed to the south side
20Adjutant General's Office, Old Files Division, 1072 Leavenworth, Jesse H. F & S 2 Colorado Cavalry. The Second Regiment Colorado Cavalry participated in the following battles: "Fort Craig, no loss . . . Cabin Creek, no loss, Honey Springs (A, B, E, G, H, and I) no loss. Webber Falls, killed enlisted men 3 . . Little Blue (July 6, 1864) killed 1 officer, enlisted men 7; wounded, enlisted men 1 . . . Canadian River, no loss. Little River (October 21, 1864) killed, officer 1, enlisted men 6; wounded, officer 1, enlisted men 12 . . . Big Blue, killed, enlisted men, 1; wounded, enlisted men 2. Marais des Cygnes, no loss. Little Osage, no loss (Official Army Register of the Volunteer Force of the United States, Army for the Years 1861, '62, '63, '64, '65. Part VIII, Territories . . . . Colorado, p. 25).
21September 26, 1863 (Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army, by Francis B. Heitman, 1903).
of the Arkansas and formed a confederation with the Comanches which still continues. "Among all of the prairie tribes they were noted as the most predatory and bloodthirsty, and have probably killed more white men in proportion to their numbers than any of the others."24
These Indians cherished an implacable hatred for the people of Texas, claiming that they had taken their hunting grounds from them. They ranged from Kansas to the Rio Grande, plundering emigrants and merchandise trains and carrying into captivity women and children. There is no doubt that some of the Indians had an idea that they were "performing a friendly act for the government by attacks upon its enemies."25 This prejudice arose from the fact that the country was once owned by the Mexicans whom they regarded as their enemies and they did not understand that the annexation of Texas made its people citizens of the United States.
Maj. Gen. G. M. Dodge telegraphed from St. Louis to James Harlan, secretary of the interior, on July 13, 1865, enquiring if Leavenworth was acting under his orders in trying to make peace with the Comanches, Kiowas and other tribes that had lately committed depredations. "I am ready to move against these Indians but it is wrong for me to send out to fight them while these agents are assuring them of peace & offering it to them. They have been guilty of great outrages within thirty days. They now go south as soon as they find the force I have got ready to punish them & are ready to sign a peace contract which they will keep till I take my troops away when they will attack us again and I think we should punish them first for what they have done."26
On, September 14, 1865, Senator James R. Doolittle of Wisconsin wrote the president and Secretary Harlan recommending Leavenworth for one of the commissioners to treat with the Indians of the Upper Arkansas. "To his firmness, sagacity and devotion we owe nearly all that has been accomplished there in favor of peace. What he has done was under my sanction in the Presi-
dent's name and he knows better than any other how to deal with these tribes. . ." The president complied with this recommendation.27
The Kiowas shrewdly informed their agent that the Government would forget them if they quit their depredations and would not deal so liberally with them in the way of annuities and they would become poor. Some of the chiefs boldly took white captives to a military post near their agency and demanded a ransom. The agent of the Arapahoes ordered them to surrender the prisoners but they declared that they would deliver them only to their own agent, Colonel Leavenworth, who was then absent from the agency.28
Military commanders charged that the Kiowas made a raid into Texas in 1866, capturing citizens, and Agent Leavenworth did not deny that they had committed depredation upon the Texans.29 He wrote from Leavenworth City, Kansas, January 14, 1866, to Col. Thomas Murphy, superintendent of Indian affairs: "As the Hon. D. N. Cooley Comr. of In. Affairs has appointed me to accompany the captives secured from the Kiowa & Comanche Indians to their homes and friends in Texas, I would suggest [that as] Mrs. McDaniels [a captive] has not yet been confined altho the expected time is now over two months passed, she might be confined any day & when so, she will be compelled to stop three or four weeks— It would be impossible to pass south, through the Indian country this winter, and I would be obliged to go to Texas by St. Louis, Cairo, the Red river and Shreveport La., and then by land nearly as far as the distance to their homes, through the Indian country . . . I would postpone the moving of these women and children until about March or April, then get two ambulances about two or three six mule waggons from the Qr. M. Dept, and let the Agent of the Kiowa and Comancha Indians go through their country and get Mrs. Spragues & Mrs. McDaniels little girls that the Kiowas still hold and the little boy 'Willie Ball' the Comanchas have, and take them all home together. . ."30
The captives referred to, eight in number, were held at Council Grove. On March 6, 1866, Leavenworth notified Commissioner Cooley that the time was approaching when they should be sent to their anxious friends. He suggested that the war department be required to furnish necessary transportation and an escort. He thought at least four troops of cavalry should be ordered to reoccupy Old Fort Cobb and that the commanding officer should be directed to co-operate with the agent on that frontier to prevent further outrage.31
This plan was indorsed by Cooley who stated that in numerous instances captives rescued from the Indians were "returned to their homes at the public expense, defrayed from funds at the disposal of this office . . . that the cheapest and by far the most expeditious method . . . would be the mode suggested by Agent Leavenworth . . ."32
Major H. Douglas of the Third Infantry wrote from Fort Dodge, Kansas, January 13, 1867: ". . . The Kiowas complain bitterly of Colonel Leavenworth . . . Kicking Bird, a chief of the Kiowas, states that only a few small bands of Kiowas got any presents; the balance, last year, got nothing; that it had been reported to Colonel Leavenworth that most of the bands were bad in their hearts and would not go in to get their presents; that he, Kicking Bird, sent runners to tell Colonel Leavenworth that his stock was poor and he could not move in then, but he would in the spring if the agent would keep his share of the goods; but Colonel Leavenworth would not listen, and either gave all the goods to the bands then in, or sold them to other Indians, and told them they would get no goods that year . . . Kicking Bird says that all bad feeling in his tribe is owing to the injustice of their agent; that it required all his influence to prevent an outbreak, and he is afraid that they will commence hostilities in the spring."33 Leavenworth testified in May, 1867, that he had been instructed by Washington not to pay annuities until captives held by Indians were returned without ransom.34
Henry M. Stanley, reporting the peace commission for eastern newspapers, from Fort Zarah, April 6, 1867, stated that Agent Leavenworth had arrived at the post which was the headquarters of the Kiowa and Comanche agency. "He has been the object of a good deal of censure from all parties, both civil and military. The military imagine he has infringed on their rights and privileges, and the civilians find fault with him because they think he cheats the Indians. As the post at Fort Dodge is in proximity to Fort Zarah, Kansas, its commander, Major Don Glass, and the agent, Leavenworth, are reported to be constantly at 'loggerheads,' and to indulge in mutual recriminations and insinuations." Major Glass based his charges on the following letter received by him from John Dodge, a halfcast trader, on behalf of the chiefs Satanta, Poor Bear and others:
"The Kioways want to know why Leavenworth does not have the goods intended for them carried to them. They say they want them. They cannot go after them; it is too cold. Horses is poor. They have a long way to go after buffalo. Squaws making robes. Four days to buffalo. Grass covered with snow. For them to go after the goods it would kill more horses than the goods is worth. Leavenworth has corn to feed his mules. They will not die. They want you to rite to Leavenworth and send him this also. If Leavenworth lisens to this and holds the goods, it is all right; if not, Kioways get mad. They will not go after them. It is cut off. The dore is shut; but they will not fight. Leavenworth can keep them. . ." This was inclosed with one Major Glass wrote to Colonel Leavenworth in which he said: "This letter, with bitter complaints on the part of the principal men of the Kiowa tribe, leads me to believe that there may be some possible grounds of complaint of which you may be ignorant; and I am confident that when such are brought to your knowledge, you will use every means in your power to secure these Indians their just rights."
According to Stanley it was expressly agreed in the treaty made May 20, 1866, between General Sanborn, Kit Carson, Colonel Leavenworth and others on behalf of the United States, and Ton-a-ev-ko, Satanta, Satank, Boyahwah-to-yeh-be and Quel-park, chiefs of the Comanches and Kiowas, that perpetual peace should be maintained, yet, during the past September, "these tribes went
to Texas and committed most diabolical atrocities, and then, at the approach of winter; appeared at Fort Dodge to claim their annuities."35
Agent Leavenworth wrote the commissioner of Indian Affairs September 2, 1867, from Camp 1, South Side of Arkansas River, Near Little Arkansas River. ". . . shall leave tomorrow . . . for the Comanche camp on the Red Fork of the North Fork of the Canadian River, at which point it is my intention to meet all the chiefs and headmen of the Kiowas, Comanches, Arapahoes, Apaches and Cheyennes that are south of the Arkansas, to make full arrangements for them to meet the commission authorized to make peace with the hostile Indians. In using the word 'hostile', I do not wish you to think that there are any hostile Indians south of the Arkansas, except a very few Cheyennes of Black Kettle's band, notwithstanding the report made by interested parties that the Kiowas are now on the war path. . . two herds of cattle, numbering some fifteen hundred, have just arrived here from Texas; and the herders report seeing very few Indians, and them very friendly . ."36
"With a view to securing peace with the hostile tribes, and to effect other important objects, Congress, by act of July 20th untimo, authorized the President to appoint a commission consisting of Hon. N. G. Taylor, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Hon. J. B. Henderson, chairman of the Senate Committee on In-
35My Early Travels and Adventures in America and Asia, Henry M. Stanley, D. C. L., 1895, Vol. I, pp. 14-18.
Santanta or White Bear was born about 1830. He became second chief of his tribe while Satank was the first chief. He was a man of force and ability and his eloquence gained him the title of Orator of the Plains. He boasted of his part in a bloody raid into Texas in 1871 and was tried for murder in that state. After being in prison for two years he was released but in the autumn of 1874 the Kiowas again went on the warpath, Satanta was captured and returned to prison where he committed suicide Obtober 11, 1878.
Satanta was described as a typical Plains warrior, tall, princely in carriage and receiving visitors with as much grace and dignity as a king. His boldness and keen humor made him a favorite with army officers in spite of his great hostility to the white men (Handbook of American Indians, Vol. 2, p. 469).
Gen. John Benjamin Sandborn was born in New Hampshire and appointed to the army from Minnesota. He was colonel of the Fourth Minnesota Infantry and was promoted to brigadier general of volunteers August 4, 1863, brevet major general February 10, 1865, and honorably mustered out of the service April 30, 1866 (Heitman, op. cit., vol. I, p. 858).
dian Affairs, Messrs. S. F. Tappan and John B. Sandborn, together with three officers of the army, not below the rank of brigadier general...
"The commission has recently effected very satisfactory treaty arrangements with the Kiowas, Comanches . . . and Cheyennes. In this matter much praise is due to . . . Leavenworth . . . for [his] promptness and efficiency in the discharge of the important and hazardous duty devolved upon [him] of visiting the disaffected Indian, to induce them to meet the commissioners . . "37
In 1867 Colonel Leavenworth gave interesting testimony before a joint special committee of Congress on the condition of the Indian tribes. He related that he became well acquainted with Indian life and character during his father's lifetime when he was in command on the frontier. That during his stay in Colorado and since, he had gained a thorough acquaintance with the Cheyennes, Arapahoes, Kiowas, Comanches and Apaches.
He did not speak their language but talked with them by signs and had no difficulty in communicating with them. At that date there were 1500 to 1700 Kiowas. He further stated that Jesse Chisom [Chisholm] was his guide and interpreter and that he had helped to keep the Indians quiet. Chisom had been the guide and interpreter of his father, General Leavenworth, on his expedition to the Comanches in 1834 and that Chisom had been with those Indians ever since; that he spoke their language perfectly. Colonel Leavenworth testified that the Cheyennes, Arapahoes, Apaches, Kiowas and Comanches were all nomads. "They are the wild Arabs of America."
The peace commission was in session at Medicine Lodge October 17, 1867, and Leavenworth and a party of his wards were present. "Before the council commenced, the village crier, in a loud voice, gave command to the nations sitting around 'to be good and behave themselves.' "
At Medicine Lodge Creek, October 20, 1867, "Before the council commenced, twelve Osage chiefs made their appearance at the council ground They had been travelling for ten days to see the commissioners. They appeared tired and hungry. Their
ponies were also lame from excessive travelling, and had buck skin wrapped around their feet." At this meeting Satanta said: "We need two agents—one for the Kioway and Comanches. There are so many hearts in the two tribes that it requires two. I have no objection to Colonel Leavenworth or any body else in the Commission, but it requires two to distribute our goods properly. For myself and my band we will take John Tappan; the other Kiowas may take Leavenworth if they will." Stanley comments: "Although he said that he had no objection to Leavenworth, still, his dislike to him was only too manifest. "38
There was much complaint on the part of the Indians of the wretched quality of the rations furnished by the Government and "the Kiowas, Apaches and Comanches as well as the various tribes in the 'Leased District' [were] quite destitute of the benefit of medical attendance and medicines. "39
Leavenworth was constantly harassed by complaints about the raids of his Indian wards and most of his time was spent in efforts to secure the release of white captives taken by the Kiowas and Comanches. In April, 1868, he had started for Fort Arbuckle but was met at Fort Gibson by a messenger from his agency with a notice that "The Kiowas are arriving, women, children, and all . . . two girls—I have talked with Timber Mountain, he says all is good-they had 7 captives—five have died and they have brought in the two that are living . . . I have no trouble with the Indians—the great difficulty is to get something for them to eat . . . The Indians understand that I have sent for you . . . . I think Black Eagle is the prime mover."
Denton County, Texas, was the scene of the raid which occurred in January and Leavenworth wrote Indian Commissioner N. J. Taylor from "Kiowa & Comanche In. Agency, Eureka Valley, L. L., 21st May, 1868 . . . I have a sad report to make—About 1st of Jany. Parry-Wah-Soit or 'Heap of Bears' a Kiowa chief started out at the head of a raiding party of nearly one hundred men . . . and killed eight persons, took two women and
39Office Indian Affairs, Report Book No. 17, p. 80, October 26, 1867-October 31, 1868. The Leased District was a tract of land rented from the Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians by the United States Government. It was located west of the ninety-eighth meridian and was designed as a home for tribes which the Government wished to place there.
eight children captives—one woman escaped, the other was left at their first night's camp unharmed—six of the children . . . perished with the cold or were killed . . . two little girls of about 3 and 5 years alone remain alive; these two after a great struggle I got from them and have with me . . ." These two children, Malinda Alice and Susan Fitzpatrick, were six and four years old when brought to the Leased Lands: As their relatives had been murdered in the raid Colonel Leavenworth took them to Washington and placed them in the Protestant Orphan Asylum where their expenses were paid by Congress. Later a bill was passed by Congress appropriating money for the care of the two girls whose names had been changed to Helen and Heloise Lincoln by act of Congress.40
In 1868 the commissioner of Indian affairs recommended that a number of military posts be established along the northern and western borders of. Texas to protect the people from invasion by the Indians from north of Red River. The Kiowas and Comanches were holding a number of captives and they promised to give them up as their annuity goods would not be distributed otherwise.41
The wild Indians did not confine their depredations to white people but raided the Chickasaw settlements and killed some of the Indians and there was a demand that Fort Cobb be regarrisoned. The Fort Smith Weekly Herald of February 15, 1868, reported that ". . . last week a band of wild Indians went to the house of Overton Love, a Chickasaw, living on Red River, about twenty miles from Fort Arbuckle, and killed him and all his family. This news is reliable, as it comes from good authority." Governor Cyrus Harris wrote to the department, January 23, 1868, that ". . . The legislature will meet on Monday, the 27th instant, for the purpose of taking into consideration the existing troubles by Comanches, Kiowas, Osages, and other tribes. Times are getting too hot to lay still. Government has taken no steps to put down this thing; and in order to save life and property, we have got to shoulder our arms and march up to the music . . . If something is not done very soon, I shall be compelled to call on the Choctaws for assistance to stop the ingress of all naked tribes
40Fitzpatrick Girls of Texas Were Christened by Congress by Carolyn Thomas Foreman, The American Indian, Tulsa, October, 1929, pp. 6, 7, 15.
into our nation. We have lost too much by them. No less than four thousand head of horses have been taken out of the country by these very naked fellows, who now live and foster on government provisions, under a cloak of treaty . . . The wolf will respect a treaty just as much as Mr. Wild Indian . . ." Taylor, the Indian commissioner, wrote Leavenworth March 10, 1868, to make enquiry respecting the raids and if the Indians belonged to his agency to "Take energetic steps to prevent any further invasion by them of the Chickasaw country, or the repetition of their outrageous acts. "42
The achievements of Leavenworth would be notable alone for the number of captives he secured and restored to their families. That was not easy or pleasant work as the Government insisted that the agent should take the white captives from the Indians without recompense. Apparently that proceeding seemed quite simple from an easy chair in a government office in Washington but it was not possible to deal with the Kiowa and Comanches in that manner. Many of the Indians claimed that they loved their white captives and could not bear to give them up but they were usually persuaded when a sum of money was offered them; naturally that only encouraged them to take more captives. The distracted families of the white captives resented any delay in the restoration of their wives or children and Colonel Leavenworth was in sympathy with them as he witnessed the effects life in an Indian camp had on the captives.
An incomplete list of captives recovered from the Indians by Colonel Leavenworth includes: Mrs. Caroline McDaniels, Rebecca Jane McDaniels in the autumn of 1865; Louisa E. McDaniels, 1866; Alice Taylor, 1865; James Ball, 1865; Willie Ball, 1866; Mrs. Elizabeth Sprague, 1865; James Benson, 1865; John C. F. Blackwell, 1866; Oley Motte, in the spring of 1867; Vina Mars, 1868, twelve years old; Johnny Kirkendall, Alexander Holt, Charley, a black boy, Tom Bailu, Helen and Heloise (name not known) all in 1868. At the time Mrs. McDaniel was captured her husband and sister-in-law were killed. Mrs. Sprague's oldest daughter, sixteen years old, was killed and two of her children died in the Indian camp.
42Misc. Doc. No. 139, House of Representatives, 41st Congress, second session. According to Gideon's History of Indian Territory, pp. 412-13, Overton Love was still living in 1901.
"In the summer of 1866 a party of No-co-mes charged upon Mr. Bob's house, in Montague County, Texas; killed Mrs. Bob while defending her children;. captured Mrs. Sarah Jane Luster, and Biantha Bob, aged eleven, and Rudolphus, aged thirteen. Mrs. Lustre made her escape from the Comanches; recaptured by the Kiowas, and, after great suffering, made good her escape from the Kiowas. Biantha Bob was ransomed by Dr. Stone, and Rudolphus was ransomed by a Pen-a-tacker chief by the name of Asa Hobit, or the Milkyway. He said he could not bear to see a white man weep for his child.
"The Box family, mother and three daughters, were given up or purchased from the Kiowas by the military at Fort Dodge in 1866. When captured Mr. Box was killed.
"Two of the five captives I reported as held by the Kiowas in my report of the 21st of May, 1868, have been given up at Fort Larned, one by Sa-ton-tu and the other by Timbird Mountain. Neither of these captives was ever near my agency or my camp. I have never failed to get a captive when they came near me, . . . Now, it is reported that two white boys and one girl were captured by the Comanches on the 7th of June last, and one man killed, and the Indians acknowledge it; and it is also reported to the department, from all sources, that the Indians are raiding all the time into Texas, and that the chiefs acknowledge themselves unable to control their young men. What should be done with them with this fearful list of crime and outrage? . . . Shall this supineness of the Indian Department continue, or shall the bureau be turned over at once to the War Department? There is no doubt on this subject. Let the officers of the army act as local agents, and the honest Quartermasters buy their goods. . ."43
The record of the life of Colonel Leavenworth after his service on the peace commission was not discovered by the writer in an exhaustive research and correspondence with several state historical societies. It is likely that he was worn out after his arduous years on the plains and no doubt he was happy to join his family in Milwaukee. His death was reported from that city March 12, 1885, at a ripe old age, in spite of the privations and hardships he endured in the service of his country.