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Chronicles of Oklahoma
Volume 10, No. 3
September, 1932

By John Bartlett Meserve

Page 310

Feudal Scotland of its picturesque peoples, its wild warring clans, its hereditary chieftains, its scenic glory of hill and mirrored tarn famed in legend and song, offers the historic background of the MacIntosh Family which has so generously enriched Creek Indian history and lore. We are paused to glimpse an age of castle walls and of personal prowess "when men were brave and women fair and wine was red,"—when man, with the drapery of chivalry drawn about him was either a demigod or a monster and dwelt sword in hand obscessed each waking hour with dazzling images of fancy. Tradition intrigues our interest in the much celebrated duel of December 5, 1056 between King Macbeth and Duncan Macduff, to which event in Scottish history, Shakespeare has imparted an imperishable interest. A well defined tradition identifies this Duncan Macduff as the founder of the MacIntosh clan and as its initial chieftain.

The medieval seat of the MacIntosh clan was situated immediately south of Inverness, Scotland along the eastern slopes of the Highlands and obviously among the heroic "Who's Who of Scotland" during the Middle Ages was one Angus MacIntosh of Mohr Castle, renowned chieftain of his clan in the early part of the 14th century. He was a bold warrior, this Chief MacIntosh, and led his people in their hereditary quarrels with the neighboring clans but chiefly against the Camerons, the MacDonalds and the MacPhersons. He fought with Robert Bruce at Bannockburn and doubtless was diligent to impress his share of the rich loot hastily abandoned by the defeated Edward II when he fled to the south after that long, hectic day in June, 1314.

The Middle Ages closed leaving in the hearts of men a passionate longing for the new day that was to come with the breaking of the rennaissance—when the personal and political rights of men were to be brought more sternly within the sphere of serious consideration. Athwart the pathway of humanity's march across the centuries loomed America, the land where the dreams of men were to approach a realization.


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Settlements decked the Atlantic seaboard in America and the remoteness of these settlements from the mother country enabled an independent spirit to develop. Under crude colonial conditions a revolutionary philosophy of individual rights began to unfold.

The Georgia Colony had its inception in the dreams of James Oglethorpe, the English philanthropist. The prisons of England restrained the liberties of men, who through some unfortunate business engagement became involved in debt. Others who challenged the prevailing religion suffered the indignities of prison life. Men and women of character faced incarceration because of minor infractions of the sumptuary laws which cursed the political life of old England during that period. As a gesture of relief for these unfortunate people, James Oglethorpe procured from the King of England, a grant of lands in America north of the Spanish territorial claims at the Altamaha river. The city of Savannah was founded by Oglethorpe and his contingent of these released people in 1733. Attracted to his benevolent enterprise were the peaceloving and anti-imperialistic Moravians from Germany. A handful of timid French Huguenots and a scattering of Jewish people also joined the Georgia Colony during those inceptive days.1 The fiber of these various colonizing elements scarcely was calculated to meet the challenge of adversity and danger in the wilds of Georgia where the savage lurked behind tree and rock. The stabilizing element to complete General Oglethorpe's cosmopolitan cocktail became available by the advent of the Scotch Highlanders in the early spring of 1736.

The good ship "Prince of Wales" commanded by Captain George Dunbar sailed from Inverness, Scotland on October 18, 1735 bearing two hundred Highlanders with their families which included some fifty women. Three months later, the timid colonists at Savannah were startled one day by the strains of the Scotch bagpipe as this Highland contingent, in kilties clad, carne marching up the street led by John Mohr MacIntosh, a chieftain of his clan. For the occupancy of this newest accretion, Oglethorpe set aside lands south of Savannah along the north bank of the Altamaha river and immediately across the river from the Spanish settlements. This disposition of the fearless Scotch served to make of them a buffer

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between the Savannah colony and the menacing Spanish to the south. The settlement of New Inverness was made, later to become Darien and today, Darien, county seat of McIntosh County, Georgia. Early, in the life of this Scotch settlement, the Spanish precipitated an attack and the Highlanders after a fierce engagement drove them back across the river but not without having suffered a loss of approximately one half of their number. The Scotch settlement grew by accretions from their old homeland among the Highlands.

John Mohr MacIntosh becomes more than a mere footnote in early Georgia history. He became storekeeper for his colony, traded with the Indians and fought the Spanish. He was taken a prisoner by the Spanish, transported to Spain, languished in prison for some time, but was later released and returned to Georgia. He was a member of the Assembly at Savannah in 1750 and died in 1756. His son, Lacklan became a character of great prominence in the Continental Army during the War of the Revolution but is perhaps best recalled in Georgia history because of his affair of honor with Button Gwinnett. This duel fought on the outskirts of Savannah on May 12, 1777 resulted in the death of Gwinnett. Button Gwinnett had been a signer of the Declaration of Independence and was the first of that body of immortalles to die.

Accompanying John Mohr MacIntosh and his company of Highlanders to Georgia in January 1736, were two of his cousins, Roderick and John. These cousins were sons of Lt. Benjamin MacIntosh whom historians identify as the natural son of old "Brigadier" William MacIntosh famous in the Jacobite Uprising in Scotland in 1715. Roderick and John MacIntosh did not tarry long at Darien but plunged further into the wilds of the Creek Indian country and settled at MacIntosh Bluffs on the Tombigbee river in what is now the State of Alabama, where they received a grant of lands from the king for services rendered by them in the Spanish wars. Roderick, known as "Old Rory" was a choleric, eccentric bachelor, held a commission as a captain in the British Army and fought against the Spanish in the south. John MacIntosh, his brother was also a British captain, lived at MacIntosh Bluffs and married a Scotch lady of the MacGillivray clan. Catharine, a daughter of Captain John MacIntosh, upon the occasion of a trip back to Scotland, married a British Naval

Chief William McIntosh

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officer by the name of Troup and lived at MacIntosh Bluffs, where her son George MacIntosh Troup was born on November 8, 1780. George MacIntosh Troup graduated from the College of New Jersey (Princeton) in 1797, was admitted to the bar in 1800 and practiced law at Savannah. He was a member of the Georgia legislature from 1801 to 1804 and of the National House of Representatives from 1807 to 1815 and Chairman of the House Committee on Military Affairs during the War of 1812. He served in the United States Senate from 1816 to 1818 and as Governor of the state from 1823 to 1827. From 1829 to 1833, he was again in the United States Senate. Governor Troup was a radical states rights advocate and in 1852 was nominated on a Secession Ticket for President. He died in Laurens County, Georgia on April 26, 1856 and is buried at Rosemont, Montgomery County, Georgia.

A son of Captain John MacIntosh was William MacIntosh who became a Tory captain in the British service during the War of the Revolution. He was probably in command of a contingent of Creek Indian allies of the British as the Indians were supportive of the British during the war. Captain William MacIntosh lived among the Creek Indians at Coweta, Georgia, where he married two Creek Indian women and by one of them became the father of William MacIntosh, the colorful Creek Indian Chief. By the other wife, he became the father of Roderick, known variant among the Creek Indians as Roley MacIntosh.

Chief William MacIntosh son of Captain William MacIntosh was born at Coweta, Georgia, in 1778. He was denied the finished culture which his cousin, the celebrated Governor had enjoyed, but whatever he may have lacked in the refinements of scholastic training was quite fully compensated in the poise, ability and acumen with which nature had endowed him. He became a character of prominence and commanding influence among the Coweta or Lower Creeks and was the chieftain of that faction from about 1800 until his death in 1825. Chief MacIntosh amassed considerable weath and his plantation home at Indian Springs, Georgia, where he was served by a retinue of negro slaves and where his herds and flocks grazed at will, was elegant in all of its appointments. Two Indian wives graced his home, Susanna Coe, a Creek woman and Peggy, a Cherokee. Residing at

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another plantation home some fifty miles distant and which he owned, was a third wife, Eliza, a daughter of Stephen Hawkins. This modern Solomon arrayed in oriental splendor, was tall, finely formed, of a graceful commanding poise and his magnificent Indian Springs plantation home became the rendezvous of United States Commissioners dealing with the Indian tribes in Georgia. By its spacious fireside, the wily chief bargained and sold the ancient homestalls of his people in the State of Georgia only to provoke his own summary execution later at the hands of the enraged Creek Indians.

In its early dealings with the Indians, the United States was not always exactly consistent. Many unfair practices which the end may seem to have justified, were indulged to divest the tribes of their ancient homes. The representatives of the government were not remiss in making convenient the employment of corrupt officials among the Indians to accomplish title to Indian lands. Bribes were scattered among influential leaders, threats were made and engagements broken by commissioners who represented the government. Against these invasions of his ancient prescriptive tenure, the Indian was without a "remedy at law" and hence the war path. Hatred, jealousy and bloodshed were occasioned by practices manifestly unfair. "Many, if not most, of our Indian wars have had their origin in broken promises and acts of injustice on our part", said President Hayes in his message to Congress in December 1877.

On April 24, 1802, the United States, in consideration of the relinquishment by the State of Georgia of all claims to the Mississippi territories (Alabama and Mississippi) engaged to extinguish the Creek Indian titles to all lands within the borders of the state "as early as could be peaceably done on reasonable terms." From thenceforth the people of Georgia began continuously to clamor for the fulfillment of this engagement by the government. The initial cession was procured from the Creeks by the treaty at Washington made on November 14, 1805.2 By this agreement, the Creeks transferred millions of acres of their Georgia lands to the state. This agreement was negotiated upon the part of the Creeks by Chief William MacIntosh, the chieftain of the Lower Creeks. At the conclusion of the Creek war of 1813-14, General Andrew Jackson

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imposed another "treaty" upon the subdued Creeks and compelled them to yield a large portion of their domain which was opened to white settlement. This "treaty" was made at Ft. Jackson, Alabama, on August 9, 18143 and again Chief MacIntosh presumed to represent the Indians. The Lower Creeks were led by Chief MacIntosh in the Creek war of 1813-14 as allies of General Jackson, at which time he was a commissioned colonel in the regular army. He was prominent against the recalcitrant members of his own tribe at Horseshoe Bend on March 17, 1814 and yet he was recognized by General Jackson as the representative of the subdued belligerents when he imposed the harsh terms of peace. MacIntosh promoted another treaty at the Creek Agency, Georgia on January 22, 18184 and again the Creeks were divested of a large fraction of their acreage. The Creeks were again bound by the treaty of January 8, 1821, at Indian Springs,5 arranged by the resourceful MacIntosh and a further divesture of lands resulted.

The Creeks were now becoming alarmed at the prospective wholesale alienation of their ancient domain by Chief MacIntosh and, at Tuckabatchee in May, 1824, enacted a law forbidding the sale of any of the remaining lands of the tribe under penalty of death. In these various treaties, MacIntosh, although chief only of the Lower Creeks, had presumed to represent the entire Creek Confederacy and the Commissioners of the United States had so recognized him although they well knew his limitations of authority. In defiance of the law passed by the Creek Council in 1824 imposing the death penalty, MacIntosh undertook by a treaty at his home at Indian Springs, on February 12, 1825,6 to divest the hapless Creeks of the remaining portion of their Georgia lands. A delegation of the Upper Creeks warned the wily MacIntosh of his doom under the law if he signed the treaty. For the first time in his venal career, the Chief hesitated, but having assurances of protection from the United States Commissioners and from his highly influential cousin, the Governor of the State of Georgia, he signed the treaty as did also a number of the Lower town chiefs including his son Chilly, although it was

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repudiated and unsigned by a majority of the Indian representatives. Chief MacIntosh was subsequently tried, in his absence, before the Creek Council under the law of 1824 and sentenced to be shot, the order for his execution being given by Little Prince, the Principal Chief of the Confederacy. The Chieftain was not disposed to dignify this action by the Council as an affair of much seriousness. He doubtless felt that his status was impregnable and manifestly he had reason to feel so. He had been unremitting in his fidelity to the interests of the white settlers as expressed through both the National and State Governments. General Jackson was his personal friend and had so expressed himself in commendatory terms after the Creek War. He had the assurances of Campbell and Meriweather, the United States Commissioners. In the Governor's chair at Milledgeville sat his cousin having the state troops at his disposal. The entire situation was calculated to inspire a sense of repose and security and so apparently all thought of the death fiat was disregarded. But when the fatal moment came General Jackson and the regulars were far away, the Commissioners had returned to Washington to interest Congress in a ratification of the treaty and the Governor of Georgia was otherwise engaged. A party of more than one hundred lighthorsemen under command of Chief Menewa of the Upper Creeks stealthily departed from Tuckabatchee to apprehend the Chief and exact the penalty of execution. In the still hours of the morning his Indian Springs home was surrounded by the execution party, the members of the family including his son Chilly who was light and hence unrecognized were permitted to retire, a torch was applied to the dwelling and in the cold, gray dawn of April 30, 1825, Chief MacIntosh walked from the flames which enveloped the house to a hideous, cruel death at the hands of his tribesmen.7 His scalplock was removed and bourne back to Tuckabatchee as a return of the order of execution and


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thus another tragic chapter of Creek Indian history was concluded.8

The unhappy death of Chief MacIntosh was not an isolated tragedy nor the result of an abnormal outbreak of fanaticism. It was an incident, a cursory episode in the political affairs of a semisavage, warlike people conducting themselves in a perfectly natural manner. His life was required in response to a tribal mandate and conventions of those days among the Indians had a depth of grim reality. The Governor of Georgia denounced the affair in terms of rage and trouble was averted only by the prompt conciliatory action of the National Government. This tragic sequel to the celebrated Chieftain's career quite naturally excites a sentiment of tenderness akin to that expressed by Desdemona to Othello, "I love thee for the battles, sieges, fortunes thou hast passed and for the distressful stroke thy youth suffered."

This Scottish Chieftain of the Lower Creeks easily could discern that Naboth's vineyard would be required as the dominant race moved across the continent, correctly visioned the ultimate removal of the Indians to the West and fully appraised their helplessness in the face of the Government's manifest determination. This situation, the full blood Indians were unable to understand or unwilling to accept. History perhaps will duly vindicate the bargain which he concluded with the Government, but the bona fides of his activities are obscured by a receptive posture toward bribes of lands and money which were available to influence his course. An intimate glimpse which betrays the disintegrating influence em-

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ployed by the representatives of the Government, is reflected in the letter which the Chief wrote to Chief John Ross of the Cherokees in which he counsels the Cherokee Chief, in 1823 to sell the Georgia lands of his people to the government. In this communication MacIntosh assures Chief Ross of his ability to arrange with the United States Commissioners to pay to Ross definite sums of money, "as present and no body shall know it." This reckless Talleyrand of the Creeks yielded to the influence of his astute cousin, the Governor of the State of Georgia as that official spared no effort to drive the Indians, from his state. The hand of the apologist trembles as he turns these sordid pages of Creek Indian history but the thoughtful student recognizes that history is not always a matter of human dignity. Men sometimes "stoop to conquer."

Much bitterness resulted from the summary execution of Chief Wiliam MacIntosh, and the Lower Creeks now to be known as the MacIntosh faction, engaged with the government for their removal to the west. As early as February, 1828, the initial contingent of this faction led by Chilly MacIntosh, eldest son of the ill fated chief, arrived in the old Indian Territory and settled near the mouth of the Verdigris river. At varying intervals thereafter and under the guiding hand of Roley MacIntosh, a half brother of chief William MacIntosh, emigrating parties of these Indians voluntarily joined their brethren in the west leaving the ancient tribal domain in Alabama to the disposition of the full blood Upper Creeks.

Roley MacIntosh was born at Coweta, Georgia, about 1790, and after the death of Muskogee, his first wife, married Susannah, the widow of his ill fated half brother and became chief of the Lower Creeks in 1828 which position of commanding influence he held for thirty-one years. His word was the law among his people and his administration of tribal affairs, safe and constructive, although he was somewhat unsympathetic in his earlier years, toward the efforts of the missionaries. He denounced the practice of poligamy among his people and opposed the use of intoxicating liquors by them. On June 22, 1829, accompanied by the full council of the Creek Nation, he waited upon Col. Arbuckle and General Sam Houston at Ft. Gibson and delivered into

Roley McIntosh

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the hands of Houston a nine page protest against the retention of Col. Brearly as Indian Agent, at the same time vigorously opposing the anticipated transfer to them of Col. John Crowell, the eastern Creek Agent. "Surely" wrote the Chief in expressing his reasons, "General Jackson would not make us so unhappy. * * * He has not forgot the Murder of Mackintosh. He knows that his blood yet lies on the ground unburied. Mackintosh was a Warrior of General Jackson's. The General told him he would protect him but Jackson was far off. Col. Crowell near at hand. He whispered to the enemies of Mackintosh—he pointed at him and he perished. * * * We hope General Jackson will not make us miserable and that he will keep this man from amongst us." This lengthy document was handed by Roley to Houston and by him transmitted to President Jackson with a personal note suggesting that the contents merited consideration. A memorial, signed by both Roley and Chilly MacIntosh was addressed to President Jackson on October 19, 1831, urging the appointment of a commission to compose their differences with the warring Comanches and suggesting the designation of Auguste P. Choteau as one of the commissioners. A great intertribal council was held at Tahlequah early in July 1843 at which meeting eighteen tribes were represented by an attendance of some three or four thousand warriors. Chief Roley MacIntosh delivered an impassioned address before this meeting on July 3, 1843 and a compact of peace was signed, one of the signatory representatives on behalf of the Creeks being Chilly MacIntosh. Roley MacIntosh as chief of the Creeks in the west signed the treaty of February 14, 1833 at Ft. Gibson9 by the terms of which the boundary differences between the Creeks and the Cherokees were adjusted. With Opothleyahola, he also signed the treaty of January 4, 184510 which enabled the settlement of the Seminoles among the Creeks in the west.

Chief Roley MacIntosh owned a large plantation at the forks of the Verdigris and Arkansas rivers which he farmed with slave labor. His imposing home which overlooked the valley was destroyed during the Civil War. He retired as chief of the Lower Creeks in July 1859, being succeeded by

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Moty Kennard. He was now an old man and at the outbreak of the Civil War, being a Southern sympathizer, he removed to Texas, making his home with his niece Delilah, widow of William Drew and daughter of the late Chief William MacIntosh, where he died in 1863 and is buried in an old family burying ground on the Drew Plantation near Jefferson, Texas. In the latter years of his life, Roley MacIntosh was baptized in the Baptist Church. It is of interest to know that Alexander MacIntosh, a grandson of Chief Roley MacIntosh, was a member of the Creek House of Warriors in 1887, a district judge of the Muskogee district for three years and on April 4, 1898 was appointed superintendent of schools for the Creek Nation by Chief Isparhecher.

Chilly MacIntosh, eldest son of Chief MacIntosh and Eliza, his wife, was born at or near Coweta, Georgia about 1800. He signed the repudiated treaty of February 12, 1825 and at the time of his father's execution, escaped death on account of his fair complexion and was permitted to retire with the white inmates from the house of carnage unrecognized by the avenging party. After this incident he took refuge, for a time, among the Cherokees. He held a commission as major in the United States army during his residence in Georgia. During the visit of General Lafayette to this country in 1825, he toured the Southland and entered Alabama at Ft. Mitchell about April 1st, 1825. Here the distinguished visitor was met by an escort composed variously of white citizens and Indians. He was first greeted by Chilly MacIntosh with fifty Indian warriors, who were stripped naked and finely painted. The General taking his seat in a sulky previously provided for him, was drawn by the Indians up the hill to where the Alabama delegation stood. On halting, the Indians gave three loud whoops.11The political activities

Chilly McIntosh

D N McIntosh

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of Chilly MacIntosh among the Lower Creeks in the West, ran contemporaneous with those of his uncle; Chief Roley MacIntosh. He signed the treaty of November 11, 183812 at Ft. Gibson, by which the losses sustained by the Lower Creeks in their removal, were adjusted by the government and also joined with his younger half brother, Daniel N. MacIntosh in signing the treaty of August 7, 185613 at Washington, which set aside specific lands for the Seminoles from the Creek domain in the Indian Territory. This treaty was one of the most important in all Creek history as it contained a summary of all antecedent agreements. In the latter years of his life, Chilly MacIntosh became a Baptist minister. He was survived by three sons, John, William F.,14 and Luke G., and by two daughters, Mildred and Martha, all of whom are now deceased.

We pause to make the historic acquaintance of Daniel Newman MacIntosh,15 the second and youngest son of the illfated Chieftain and Susannah, his wife, who was born at Indian Springs, Georgia on September 20, 1822 and came West with the third emigrating party in 1830. He first settled on the lower Verdigris but later established his home near what is now Fame, McIntosh County, Oklahoma. He was educated at Smith Institute, Kentucky and subsequently married Jane Ward by whom he had four sons, Albert, Freeland, Roley and Daniel N. Jr. Upon the demise of his first wife, he married Emma Belle Gawler and seven children blessed this union, of whom the following are living, J. M., W. Y., Mrs. E. I. Smith, Mrs. Rose Hyland and Mrs. C. W. Boteler. Colonel MacIntosh was an ardent Baptist, being a minister of that demonination for fifteen years prior to his death. Daniel N. MacIntosh, with his half brother Chilly MacIntosh was a

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delegate for his people to Washington in 1856, where he signed the treaty of August 7 of that year. When a young man, he was chosen clerk of the council of the Lower Creeks and also served as a member of its House of Warriors and as a member of its supreme court. In the War between the States, Daniel N. MacIntosh, then in the vigor of middle life, assumed a most engaging part. He raised the First Creek Indian Confederate Regiment and became its colonel. This regiment was organized on August 19, 1861 for twelve months service but was reorganized in August 1862 and served during the war. It is interesting to note that a Second Creek Indian Regiment was soon formed for the Confederate service and of this regiment, Chilly MacIntosh now an old man became the colonel. These two regiments saw much active service, both being attached to the brigade commanded by Col. D. H. Cooper. Both regiments were in service at Round Mountain when the Union Creeks under Chief Opothleyahola, were engaged and were again with Col. Cooper at Pea Ridge, Arkansas in March 1862. After the defeat of the Confederates under Col. Cooper at Honey Springs, the Indian regiments retired to the Red River country where they remained until the conclusion of the war. As captain of Company C. in the regiment commanded by Col. Daniel N. MacIntosh, was Captain William F. MacIntosh, the second son of Chilly MacIntosh. The captain was born back in Alabama on November 12, 1824 and served in the Confederate army for one year, enlisting on August 8, 1861. This MacIntosh walked with God for forty-two years as a Baptist minister. After the war, he served as district judge of the North Fork district, was elected prosecuting attorney for that district in 1881 but declined to serve because of conscientious scruples and later became a member of the Creek House of Warriors from 1887 to 1891. Eight members of the MacIntosh family served in Col. Daniel N. MacIntosh's regiment in the war, A. H. MacIntosh as 2nd Lieut. in Company G, John MacIntosh, a son of Chief Roley MacIntosh as a private in Company C, Thomas MacIntosh as a private in Company F, William MacIntosh as a 2nd Lieut. in Company A, William MacIntosh as a private in Company G and William H. MacIntosh as Captain of Company G. In 1864, both Creek Indian regiments were united with the Seminole battalion and the command conferred upon Col. D. N. MacIntosh. The

Rev. William McIntosh

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military service of the members of the MacIntosh family in the Confederate army was of the highest character.

The Lower or MacIntosh faction of the Creek tribe quite definitely became aligned with the cause of the Confederacy. At the outbreak of the war, the MacIntosh family was one of the wealthiest in the Creek Nation. They were large plantation and slave owners but the ravages of the war quite depleted their holdings. The MacIntoshes were men of high, Christian character and ability and capable of forming an intelligent conviction upon questions of public moment and were possessed of the fearlessness and courage to express themselves. It was not unnatural that their sympathies should have been with the South in its struggle. They came from the South, having back of them an historic background to the creation of which influential member of their own family had contributed substantially. They may have been influenced unconsciously by the denunciations of the militant states rights governor of Georgia, whose career death had terminated but some five years before the war. It may be said that the MacIntoshes entered the Confederate service prompted by the highest convictions. At the conclusion of the war they resumed the posture of influence among their people which they had enjoyed for so many years. The family, quite generally, settled upon farms then known as Chilly's Prairies, near the present settlement of Fame, and in what is now McIntosh County, Oklahoma.

With the return of peace, Chilly MacIntosh retired to his farm at Chilly's Prairies near Fame where he died on October 5, 1875, and is buried near Fame, his wife Leah having died on the September 11th preceding. Col. D. N. MacIntosh became the representative of his faction in the initial peace negotiations at Ft. Smith in 1866 and in the final settlement at Washington on June 14th of that year.16 He recuperated much of his losses occasioned by the war and became a most successful farmer and stockraiser and died at his farm some ten miles southwest of Checotah, near Fame, in what is now McIntosh County, Oklahoma where he is buried, on April 10, 1895. Col. MacIntosh was a charter member of Eufaula Lodge, A. F. and A. M. His son Roley C., born April 22, 1858 served as a district judge of the Eufaula district for two terms

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and was also a delegate for his tribe to Washington. Another son, Freeland B., was a member of the Creek House of Warriors for four years. An outstanding member of the family was Albert Gallatin MacIntosh, known throughout the Creek Nation as Cheesie MacIntosh. He was the oldest son of Col. Daniel N. MacIntosh and born in the Indian Territory on January 27, 1848. In October, 1862, he was sent to Texas where he attended school at Jefferson and after a residence there of some six years, returned to the Indian Territory and resided there until 1874. He again removed to Texas for a few months and subsequently took up his residence in Smith County, Tennessee where he was active for many years. During his residence in Tennessee, he took the name of James Gentry Brown, became a lawyer, practicing at Carthage and was elected to and served for eight years as County Superintendent of Schools of Smith County. He married Miss Mollie F. Boulton, a white lady on December 9, 1879, by whom he had four children, Freeland, Van A., Daniel N. and Waldo E., all born during his residence in Tennessee. He returned with his family to the Indian Territory about 1901, resumed the MacIntosh name and he and his sons were enrolled as members of the Creek tribe in 1901. He served in the Sequoyah statehood convention at Muskogee in August 1905. Prior to statehood, he was appointed as one of the Superintendents of Schools for the Creek Nation and in September 1907 was elected County Superintendent of Public Schools for McIntosh County, Oklahoma, which position, he held until 1911. He practiced law at Checotah until his death on August 8, 1915, where he is buried.

Chilly MacIntosh had three full sisters, Jane who married Col. Samuel Hawkins who was slain by the Indians, Kate who married a Cousin and Sallie, wife of McClish, a Scotchman. Chilly is reputed to have had a full brother named Louis who died in early life. Daniel Newman MacIntosh had no full brothers but had three full sisters, Rebecca who married Benjamin Hawkins and after his death, Spire Haggerty and lived on a plantation near Jefferson, Texas. She has descendants living in Oklahoma among them being Mrs. C. J. Hindman and Mrs. Louise Walker of Tulsa, Oklahoma, who are granddaughters. Another sister of D. N. MacIntosh, was Delilah Drew of Jefferson, Texas, whose daughter Susan McIntosh Rogers lives at Muskogee, Oklahoma. Hettie West

Cheesie McIntosh

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nee MacIntosh was also a full sister of D. N. MacIntosh and left descendants, some of whom now live in Wagoner County, Oklahoma. No record is available to show that Chief William MacIntosh had any children by his wife, Peggy.

The influence of the MacIntoshes in the affairs of the Lower Creeks was paramount for sixty years. Under their leadership the early Creeks came from their ancient homes in Georgia and Alabama to the old Indian Territory. The removal of the Creeks has ever been invested with a dramatic interest as those Ishmaelites of the race were enforced to reestablish their social structure in the west. Gaunt specters of famine stalked among them and adversity disciplined their souls during those eventful years. It was an achievement of courage. Through those "dark ages" of Creek life, the MacIntoshes blazed the trail and shared the vices and rigors of the unmeasured waste. There is no phase of Creek Indian history in the west preceding the postbellum years that is not touched by the influence of this historic family.

The story of the Creek Indian MacIntoshes17 and of their forbears, stretching from the Highlands of bonnie Scotland to the wind swept prairies of the old Indian Territory, is one which intrigues with its great interest. They move like a phantom caravan across the years.

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