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Chronicles of Oklahoma
Volume 3, No. 3
September, 1925
THE JOURNAL OF HUGH EVANS, COVERING THE FIRST AND SECOND CAMPAIGNS OF THE UNITED STATES DRAGOON REGIMENT IN 1834 AND 1835.
CAMPAIGN OF 1834

Transcribed From the Original and Edited
BY
FRED S. PERRINE
With Additional Notes
BY
GRANT FOREMAN

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FOREWORD

Hugh Evans was a Sergeant, Company G, United States Dragoon Regiment. The Journal here presented is well written in ink in a book four inches wide, eight inches long and three-fourths of an inch thick, bound at the end, and written across the narrow page. The cover and fly leaves are missing.

The first twenty-two pages have the morning reports and roll call of the Company beginning Dec. 18, 1833, and ending with the report of January 8, 1834. The first morning report is headed "Morning Report of Captain Ford’s Company U. S. Dragoons, stationed at New Albany, Indiana, Dec, 18, 1833" and is signed,—

Sergeant A. N. Mills,
Acting Ord. Sergt.
B. A. Terrett
2nd Lt U. S. Dragoons.

The next report dated Dec. 20, 1833, is signed—
A. N. Mills,
Acting Ord. Sergt.
T. B. Wheelock
1st Lt U. S. Dragoons.

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The report dated Dec. 21, 1833, is signed,
Samuel J. Duncan
Act. Ord. Sergt.
T. B. Weelock
1st Lt U. S. Dragoons.

as are the reports of Dec. 22-23-24, 1833.

The report of Christmas Day Dec. 25, 1833 is signed,
H. Evans
Act. Ord. Sergt.
T. B. Weelock
1st Lt U. S. Dragoons.

The report of Dec. 26, 1833, is signed,—
Hugh Evans
Act. Ord. Sergt.
B. A. Terrett
2nd Lt U. S. Dragoons.

as is also the report of Dec. 27, 1833.

On the 28th and 29th Sergeant Evans and 1st Lieut. T. B. Wheelock signed the report, on the 30th, Sergeant Evans and 2d Lieut. B. A. Terrett, and on December 31, 1833, the report is signed by Sergeant Evans, and for the first and only time by Capt. Lemuel Ford.

January 1st, 1834, report was signed by Sergeant Evan and 2d Lt. B. A. Terrett, and on the 2d, by Sergt. A. N. Mills and 1st Lt. T. B. Wheelock.

This last report reads,—
"Morning Report of Detatchment[sic] of U. S. Recruits commanded by Lt. Wheelock, U. S. Dragoons on S. Boat Messenger."

The reports of Jany. 3d to 7th inclusive were signed by the same parties, as was also the report of Jany. 8, 1834, which however was headed,—
"Morning Report of Detatchment[sic] of U. S. Recruits Commanded by Lt. Wheelock, encamped in Illinois."

On the reverse side of the sheets on which these reports are written, is a list of men absent, on leave, etc. etc. This list shows that Captain Ford and Sergeant Evans were absent from their company nearly all the time in question, undoubtedly on recruiting service. Then corner several pages showing police and kitchen details for this same period.

Sergeant Evans states at the beginning of his Journal, that he was on recruiting service till March 20, 1834, and undoubtedly Captain Ford was also detailed on the same service.

The Journal of Sergt. Hugh Evans, covers the summer campign of the U.S. Dragoons with the exception of Com-

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pany A, in 1834. There are two contemporary accounts of this campaign of which the editor has knowledge. One of which was the official report of Lieut. T. B. Wheelock, dated Fort Gibson, August 27, 1834, which is published in "Message from the President of the United States to the two Houses of Congress, at the commencement of the second session of the twenty-third Congress," dated Dec. 2, 1834. This report will be used by the editor, and notes from the same will be marked "T. B. W."

The other account is contained in "Dragoon Campaign to the Rocky Mountains, etc.," by a Dragoon (James Hilldreth), published by Wiley & Long, New York, 1836. This account however only covers the campaign of 1834, which did not reach the Rocky Mountains, but only extended across the present state of Oklahoma.

It is curious to note that Captain Ford is not mentioned in any way in Wheelock’s report, and not at all by Evans, after the statement on the first page of his Journal, until after the arrival of the Regiment from its arduous campaign, in present Oklahoma. After returning to Fort Gibson, Evans states on page 94 of the Journal,—"Capt. Ford is sick."

This Journal also covers the campaign of 1835, up the Platte River to the Rocky Mountains, and down the Arkansas, under the command of Col. Henry Dodge. The Journal ends abruptly under date of August 19, 1835, in the middle of a sentence.

On the last few leaves of the book in which the Journal is written, is the following;—
"Names of men died in G Company, U. S. Dragoons, time and place they died &c.
Priv. Bell at Jefferson Barracks Apr 1834 enlisted at Bloomington Ia—A. I. M. Patterson on the march from Jefferson Barrack to Fort Gibson in May 1834.
Priv Brim      DO      Do      Do      Do
Charles Gatliff at Fayetteville A. T. on said march May 1834.
John McLaughlin at Camp Cannadian on the summers campaign June 1834.
George B Alexander at Fort Gibson after our return from the Pawnee village Sept 1834
Johoikim van Volkingburgh also at Camp Cannadian on our return from the summers campaign August 1834.

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James Pratt at Fort Gibson after our return Sept 1834 also Henry Thompson, same
Pt. Irwin at Fort Gibson after we left Fort Gibson for Fort Leavenworth Sept 1834
Jeremiah Seitz            Morgan
Samuel Sheard at Fort Gibson Sept 1834
Sergt H. I. Ball at Fort Gibson 1834
Priv William Daily Nov 1834
"      Latham
Capt. Vallandingham
Priv McCuchan & Terhune at Fort Towson last July—

"Names of the discharged from G C—U. S. Dragoons—
John Thompson Sergt at Fort Gibson June 1834
Moses Fleming Private same place same time
Matthew Perry Private Do      Do      Do      Do
Dr. John F Fitzgerald at Fort Leavenworth Dec 20 1834
Thomas N Loyd same time same place
Stephen D. Mullowney Ft Leavth 1834

"Names of those deserted from G Company U. S. Dragoons
I. W. Lyon      New Albany Ind Jany 1834
A. N. Mills, Robert & John Freeman from Jefferson Barracks Feby 1834
John Hutchinson Do Apr 1834
Charles Daily, Phillip Hattaton Thomas Bobo, Miller, Clark—Apr 1834
Christopher Bench on the march from Jefferson Barracks at Fayetteville A Territory May 1834
Privates Douglass & W Evans from Fort Leavenworth Sept 1835 they were recruits)"

The Wheelock Report of the campaign of 1834, contains the names of many officers, who afterward became famous. Among these were the following:
Lieut. Col. S. W. Kearny, served in the War with Mexico;
Lieut. Jefferson Davis, later became Secretary of War in the Cabinet of Franklin Pierce, 1853-57, and President of the Confederate States of America 1861-65 ;
Lieut. Thomas Swords, served through the Mexican and Civil Wars;
Capt. E. V. Sumner, served through the Mexican and part of the Civil War;
Captain David Hunter, was in the service during the Mexican War, and served thrown the Civil War;
Lieut. Enoch Steen, and Capt. Lemuel Ford served through the Mexican War;

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Lieut. P. St. G. Cooke, served through the Mexican and Civil Wars;
Captain Nathan Boone, the youngest son of Daniel Boone, was in the service during the Mexican War;
Lieut. L. B. Northrop, was in the service during the Mexican War, and was Colonel and Commissary General, C. S. A., 1861-65;
Capt. Eustace Trenor, was in the service during the Mexican War.

The Journal is paged up to and including page 94, after which no pagination occurs.

There is one queer incident regarding this Journal which the editor cannot solve, viz., the speeches of Colonel Dodge, and the Indians, while in council, are nearly verbatim with Lieutenant Wheelock’s official report, and show that either Sergeant Evans had access to Lieutenant Wheelock’s original manuscript report, or that Lieutenant Wheelock obtained his report from Sergeant Evans. Speech after speech are exactly the same.

The editor has copied this Journal exactly as written. Like other journals of the period little attention was paid to capitalization or punctuation. In re-writing, sentences which show no break in the original, have been spaced to make easier reading. All words or sentences enclosed in brackets are inserted by the editor.

The original Journal was loaned to Mr. Geo. H. Himes, curator of the Oregon Historical Society, in whose possession it now is, by Miss Amanda Evans, of Portland, Ore., a niece of Hugh Evans.

I can see no reason for the sudden termination of the Journal on August 19, 1835, as Evans finished the campaign of this year. He was drowned in the Missouri River, August 8, 1836. (See note by Mr. Foreman.)

The editor is under many obligations to Mr. Geo. H. Himes, curator, and Miss Nellie B. Pipes, assistant secretary, of the Oregon Historical Society, also to Miss Stella M. Drumm, secretary of the Missouri Historical Society, for much help and information, which is herewith thankfully acknowledged.

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The information relative to the records of the Army officers in the command is taken from Heitman, and the information regarding Captain Gantt, is in part from Bancroft’s History of California. The notes relative to the line of march, and other interesting data, have been made by Mr. Grant Foreman of Muskogee, Okla., who is an authority on this subject, and are initialed by him. The editor is also under many obligations to Mr. Foreman, and heartily acknowledges the same.

From information lately received, it is safe to assume that Hugh Evans was the personal orderly of Col. Henry Dodge.

Fred S. Perrine.


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Hugh Evans1Enlisted in the Dragoon 2 service on the 16 of October 1833 to serve three years remained until the 20 of March following at Charlestown & New Albany Ia [Indiana] on the recruiting service, when I left New Albany in company with Capt. Ford3 for Jefferson Barracks where we arived [sic] the 24 of the same month on board the steam boat Messenger Remained at Jefferson Barks until the 8 of May drilling two hours every forenoon in the light infantry drill and one hour in the afternoon on horseback—also attending to many other duties which kept us verry [sic] busy—preperations [sic] were making daily for our march to Fort Gibson4, five Companies of Dragoons are already here. Co. F. G. H. I. & K (2) On the 4th of April we were paid off and on the 8th5 we left Jefferson Barracks for Fort Gibson under the











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command of Lieut. Wheelock.6 After a march of about 500 [300] miles in 18 Days through various sorts of Country we arrived at Fort Gibson Our travels from Jefferson Barracks to Fork Gibson is of considerable note the country through which we came, partly through the interior of Missourie [sic] and partly through Arkansas Territory the land generally of the most indifferent kind some pararie also some high oak woodland of a verry [sic] inferior quality of soil (3) The situation of the encampment was near Fort Gibson where we arrived on the 26 of May We remained at Ft Gibson until the Regt was organized on the 17 of June when we left Camp Jackson for False Washita (Camp Jackson is about one mile from Ft Gibson imediately [sic] in a grove of timber in the edge of a beautiful parairie where the Dragoons were encamped until the Regt was organized).7 Then we were ordered on our summers campaign8 to proceed imediately[sic] to the False Washita Accordingly on the 19 of June we left an encampment on the South side of the Arkansas River The Regt. crossed the Arkansas at the Junction of Arkansas Verdigris & Grand Rivers & proceed on for the False Washita The Country through which we traveled Displayed a variety of scenery (4) When on one side we could look and behold as far as the naked eye could Disern one continual large expanse of Pararie with occtional [occasional] groves of timer [timber] serounded[sic] by beautiful hills and elevations rendering the seanery[sic] a fair picturesque of Beauty. On the other side skirts of timber with Deer Bear and other wild animals bounding their way through. We would frequently come to large tracts of Woodland for miles covered with scruby[sic] white oak timber and some undergroth[sic] The only stream of consequence we crossed until we came to the Red Fork of the







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Cannadian was the north fork, we crossed this stream at its falls—on both sides of which there are some Indian and white settlements9. We encamped on tthe[sic] night of the 21st of June about one mile south of the said river on the edge of a Pararie On the 22nd we continued our march through a country of a similar nature (5) only enclined[sic] to be more hilly and water scarce. The whole march from the Arkansas River to the South Fork of the Cannadian is varigated[sic] with some woodland and large Bounderies[sic] of Pararies—

Consider our situation at this time we were about 500 strong with a number of wagons Our chance for water must a have been extremely bad unless it was verry[sic] plenty which was not the case We would travel whole days at a time without coming to any water at all what we came to occationally[sic] was of the worst kind the top covered over with green slime when sturd[sic] up was perfectly muddy and unfit for the use of man or horse These days were incesently[sic] warm in traveling through these Pararies when the sun was pouring down with all his scourching[sic] rays upon us—(6) In this manner we traveled on until we came to the South Fork of the Cannadian River. This River is worthy of notice from many singular incidents about it The whole Bed of the River is about one quarter of a mile wide and is perfectly Dry only about 20 or 30 yards on one side where there is any water and that of a perfect Copper Colour, this water runs near the south side of the river and the Dry Beach on the opposite side is of a miry & quaggy nature a horse if he stands more than a minute will perhaps mire the water was low we crossed over with verry[sic] little Difticulty[sic] the Bottom was litterally[sic] covered with young cottonwood for upwards of (7) a half a mile. On the east side there is a fort commenced a Co. of the 7th Infantry are already here encamped building this fort 10. We came about one mile on the South side of this river and encamd[sic] on the night of the 25 of June 34

On the 26 we resumed our march through a similar country as before the soil somewhat sandy with some beau-





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tiful fertile Bottoms when we struck into a high white oak ridge over which we traveled for some miles this ridge was covered with scrubby white oak timber; at leanth[sic] we arivd[sic] in the Pararie of a rather inferior quality in which Pararie we passed an Osage Indian Encampment11, there were Indians of all sizes ages and sex to the avarage [aggregate] number of about 500 these were a hunting Party some of whom were going (8) to accompany us to the pawnee village under the command of a Frenchman by the name of Beat. [Beatte] 12 These Indians are at hostilities with the Pawnees and when they venture on this large tract of hunting ground they have to go in great numbers in order to avoid a surprise and Defeat from their enemies the Pawnees We also had one Pawnee & one Kiawa woman prisioners whom we purchased from the Osages sometime since These prisioners[sic] we are taking to their native land in order to make an exchange for a ranger of Capt Boons Company who was taken prisoner on the last summer campaign

On the 27th we renewed our march 13 nothing of importance occurd[sic] only we met in our way with some high romantic Pararies also some beautiful level (9) glades where we could look and behold the game or any other object that might occationally[sic] intercept our passage On the 1st of July eve arrivd[sic] at or near the False Washita river near the confluence of the Washita river with the red River here is also a fort building by a company of the 3d Infry from Fort Towson we remained at this camp about 24 hours when we were ordered to cross the Washita river, Accordingly on the 2d of July we crossed the river with some difficulty having to swim our horses and ferry our baggage across on rafts14 we marched about one mile to the most illegible [eligible] position for Water and rang [range] halted and encamped; (leaving our sick at Camp Washita of which we









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were greatly incumbered) for the purpose of recruiting ourselves and horses15. We remained here without any important ocurance[sic] (10) until the ever memorial [memorable] 4th of July that great day of American Jubilee which day is gloriously celebrated as the day of American Independence as the cause that brought light and libirty[sic] to the New World; how many Thousand are enjoying themselves in all the magnficience[sic] and grandier[sic] feasting on all the luxurous[sic] productions of the Earth without the least feeling compassion for those travelers in the forest, ya ; perhaps never thinking there are such beings in existance[sic] as the young hardy and enterprising Dragoons who have been exposed to all the pelting inclemincies[sic] of a wild and uncovered abode. Whose sustainence[sic] of nature depends measureably[sic] upon the skillful man with his gun and amunition[sic] indeed this was the case for we were then living (11) on half the rations allowed by Government to a Soldier anticipating a long and Serious journy[sic] before us not knowing when we will get to winter quarters or how our stores of provisions were to be replenished I myself verry[sic] well recollect that I made my 4th of July dinner upon some venison soup without Bread

On the 6th of July we commenced our march we came about 10 miles principly[sic] through prairie16 halted and encamped for the night When Genl. Leavenworth17 came up to us ordered Col. Dodge18 to take 200 of the most daring healthy and select men of his Corps to proceed immediately into the enemies Country19 Accordingly on the 7th Col Dodge inspected us ordering us to leave everything that would have a tendincy[sic] to retard our (12) progress taking nothing with us but one change of shirts &c leaving a











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number sick with various diseases also our baggage wagons, a number of pack horses tents, &c, &c.

On the 8th we mounted our horses commenced the line line of march filled up with anthusiasm[sic] and a appearant[sic] prospect of acquiring fame We moved off in solid column for about 6 miles when we halted and encamped for the night20 here we beheld a large drove of Buffaloe[sic] at Some distance off We dispatched Some of our best hunters in order to bring some of those gentry to show cause why we should not eat them those hunters brought in their carcass plentifully to supply us in a bundance[sic] On the night of the 8 there was a (as our officers are pleased to call it) a Stump Pedo [stampede] (13) which caused great disturbance in our camp whether this uproar was caused by the running of Buffaloe[sic] or the near approach of Indians I am unable to say But certain it is that the consternation was so great that the men awoke in the deadly hour of night commenced hollowing to a Desperate rate so as to frighten the horses that they ran parcipately [precipitately] from our encampment and one instance I recollect verry[sic] well that a centernal [sentinel] on post discharged his peace as he thought at an Indian but to his mortification it proved to be a horse trying to make his escape from the fright was shot dead instantly on the spot many of our horses (14) made their escape and it occupied the greater part of the next day to collect them together again. Owing to this Alarm in camp we remained at this camp on the 9 in order to collect our horses,21 On the 10 resumed our march. But here I must relate a circumstance that occurred[sic] on the 9 while we were lying at this camp The Osage Indians we had with us were out on a Buffaloe[sic] hunt when they came across a calf they vigiously [vigorously] took in pursuit of it at a distan[sic] of perhaps a mile from us in the open plain, the chase was close and conducted with great rapidity winding round for some miles the calf running in to save his bacon the Indians with their usual perseverance in such circumstances pursued their[sic] game until the calf finally overcome with fateigue[sic] surrendered himself a prisoner of war and those Indians brought him safe into camp and turned him over to Maj.





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Mason22 who took care to secure him well The place of our Encampment was a picturesque one. the wide extensive plains surounding[sic] us on all sides with a small strem[sic] in our front lined with trees and undergrowth to an immense thickness the rising elevation on both sides to a considerable hight[sic] and then desending[sic] into a beautiful level as far as the eye could carry. Our encampment being situated on the side of one of these hills the sun with all his scorching rays (16) came pouring down upon us almost hot enough to have roasted an egg in the sand

About 8 Oclock on the 10 we were all under marching orders in the wide wilderness, no man knowing where or what was to be his future destination whether he was to leave his dead body a prey to the foracious[sic] wild animals of the forest his flesh to be torn from his body and his bones to lye bleeching[sic] in the wide and tractless[sic] desert. Whether utter starvation was to be his lot or to perish at the hands of the merciless savages Or in short what was the will of the dispenser of all good toward the handful of men in their present undertaking where they were going they knew not what was to be their fate they knew not But they calmly resigned themselves to their fate. (17) Every man looking forward with an eye single to one thought, the service the welfare and the prosperity of the Country and cause in which he had the honor to serve, weathering through the storm of every difficulty the Scorching rays and burning heats of a Torid Zone. through the wide and shadeless pararie. worn out with fateigue[sic] hunger thirst and exaustion[sic] in a warm and Sultry Climate. In this way we would persevere our march in this wild and tractless wilderness at the rate of from 15 to 25 miles aver day23

On the 10th it rainded[sic] considerable We arrived at some high and romantic mounds occationally[sic] crossing some steep raveens[sic] the banks and sides of which were litterally[sic] covered with brush and undergrowth almost imposible[sic] for





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a horseman to get through but with some difficulty in getting over these high Rocky mountains (18) we came to a beautiful small pararie which was litterally[sic] covered with large herds of Buffalo Our Indian hunters that was with us killed one immediately in the road W came a few miles further haled and encamped on a sideling eminence when we sent out some hunters to kill Buffaloe[sic] which they brought in, in great abundance when each man fell to work cooking in order to satisfy our hungry appatiets[sic] after a fatieguing[sic] march Our general orders in camp are to hold ourselves in readiness to meet any attack or molestation that might be offered against us—On the 11 We commenced our march over some thick undergrowth or Mushy thickets which is commonly called the "cross timbers,"24 with some steep riveens[sic] at leanth[sic] we struck into an open pararie which [was] covered with wild (19) and unmolested Buffaloes for miles in our front We marched about 20 miles today and encamped near a creek immediately in the edge of a beautiful grove of trees where we let our wearied horses graze at large in the open plain in our front. 12th of July We resumed our march at the usual hour about 8 Oclock through the thick Brushy timber almost impossible for man or beast to get through at leanth[sic] we made our way among these difficulties and came to into some beautiful Pararies Marched about 20 miles25 halted and encamped in our usual form that of a hollow square

our encampment was on a poor white oak ridge wher[sic] the orderly Sergeant of Company C was reduced to the ranks as a private Soldier. (20) 13th. We commenced our march over wide and beautiful pararies we could behold large numbers of wild horses at some distance from us. Our Indians caught a beautiful wild mare heavy with foal





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they also in their chase assert to have seen a number of Pawnees, who ran off entirely wild, and they could not get near enough to make any compremise[sic] with them we came today about 22 miles26 generally over pararie and it is singular to notice that the small groves of timber runing[sic] through these pararies run a course nearly North & South

we halted encamped exausted[sic] and fatiegued[sic] in the most eligible position We could select—

July 14th 1834—
This morning we commenced our march as usual marched about one mile came into a wide and extensive pararie having a romantic eminence on the right (21) on the side of Which we espied some Indians whom we suppose to be Pawnees27 we were ordered to put ourselves in "readiness for an immediate attack" we filed to the right, came within some distance & halted. the white flag was sent out to them (which had been hoisted and carried by the flank guard for some time) they appeared at first unwilling to come to us but after some parleying and consultation among themselves there was a daring and resolut[sic] Spaniard (who had been taken prisoner by them when verry[sic] young and adopted their customs) approached us without fear, after some interogatories[sic] he told us they were Commches on a Buffalo and wild horse hunting Expedition. they appeared perfectly friendly and informed us their town was about two days ride from us also agreed to pilot us to their (22) towns, accordingly we set out nearly a due west28 course in serch[sic] of thier[sic] village

Those Commanch[sic] Indians are the the most homely featured being verry[sic] large & corpulent in size not to [so] tall as the Osages but of a heavy square and inelegent perportion[sic] they kept with us this day and when we halted and encamped for the night, encamped near us. A verry[sic] interesting dialogue took place this evening between Col Dodge and this Spaniard in which he gave us some information respecting the rout we would probably take the distance to the Pawnee village their friendly intentions &c He told us that the







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Pawnees had a negro man a prisioner also a small white boy. that the Commanchs[sic] wished to be friendly with the white folks if their neighbors the Pawnees were willing That they had never molested the whites it only was [with] the Osage they were at enmity that they would be verry[sic] glad to come on amicable terms with the whites

July 15, 1834 We resumed our march wet and cold through high Elevated pararies in looking in our front we could see some verry[sic] high peaks and those whom we think have the best right to know tells us that the Pawnee Indians live on the other side of those peaks. we crossed over some verry[sic] deep raveens[sic] the banks of which was covered with thick undergrowth bramly briars &c after much difficulty and fatiegue[sic] we came into a highly romantic and Elevated pararie when we arrvd[sic] at the summit of which we could have a commanding view of all the sirounding[sic] country (24) as far as the eye could extend when we could look forward and have a beautiful sight of the Commanche village looking like a great meadow with the small cocks of hay scattered promiscuously over it when on the hight[sic] of this eminence the beauties in looking down on the valley was truely[sic] grand and romantic When we came in near those Indians village they came out on horse back to meet us with friendly appearances we halted and encamped near thier[sic] village29 the [they] gathered around our encampment in great numbers admiring the many curriosities[sic] we had with us. Those Indians are large and corpulent not so tall and elegantly formed as the Osage Indians but much heavier and coarser featured than them. (25) The Spaniard we found among them when asked if the Pawnees had any Americans replied they had a negro man and a white boy but he could not inform us how long they had had them, They agreed to send a pilot with us to the Pawnee village accordingly on the 18th of July we were all under marching orders accompanied by a Pawnee Mohawk [Maha] Indian as a pilot our course nearly due west30 we came about ten miles came to an excellent stream of water also a beautiful situation for an encampment (it being the first water fit for a horse to drink we had seen for days travel.) There we halted formed our encampment in the edge of a beautiful





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grove of timber with the cool lucid stream runing[sic] in rural silence along its favorite course never before perhaps had quenched the thirst of civilized man ready to answer the demands (26) of a weak fatiegued[sic] and exausted[sic] stranger. On the morning of the 19th Col Dodge made another selection leaving our sick (which by this time had increased to about 30) with about 30 men to guard them. Collecting the remainder giving them orders to put their arms and accoutrements in order for an expected attack; We accordingly mounted our horses commenced the line of march possessed with new ardor and zeal. Our whole force consisted of only about 180 effective men. immediately after leaving this Camp we surmounted a high rocky eminence where we could look down upon the low lands covered with grass and herbage directly in our front were some high Rocky mountains whose imence hight appeared to ascend almost to the lowering clouds covered with huge ridges of Rocks (27) we descended this hill came into a beautiful level valley about one mile wide, through this valley run a beautiful clear christol[sic] stream which stole in gentle silence its favourite[sic] course prehaps never before squench[sic] the thirst of civilized man while on both sides we behold the high romantick[sic] granites of rocks appearing like the workmanship of man has lent his aid in placing there together while along this creek there was places bearing strong resemblance to once cultivated farms. such as a few old scrubby locust trees some undergrowth with many other natural curiosities this days travel was verry[sic] interesting and our course nearly west 2531 miles when we encamped by the edge of a small creek near a grove of timber where we hourly expect an attack from the enemy but the night passed off and we [were] unmolested by Indians although our horses are a great (28) annoyance to us by breaking loose runing[sic] off &c.—

July 20. Early this morning we were under marching orders through a country similar to that of yesterday only the vallies[sic] were much wider and more extensive our march today was frequently intercepted by high rocky hills also narrow and difficult passages over ravines This day we struck the waters of the red river which is pacularly[sic] situated runing[sic] through a rocky mountainous country the water of which is a pure copper couler[sic] so verry[sic] salty that we cannot use it



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in drinking of cooking the beach on both sides is covered with pure fine white salt. We also passed today several "dog towns" These animals are verry[sic] singular they form themselves into a body and throw up a hill on the surface of the earth about a foot high through which (29) they make holes runing[sic] diaginally[sic] in the ground of twelve or fifteen feet deep these intersecting each other something like a burrow for rabbits; here it is singular to remark that there are small owls that live in the hole with those dogs they are always sitting at the mouth of the hole—. There will be acres at a place covered with these holes the dog is something larger than our commen[sic] ground squirrel—We marched today about 30 miles a little north of west32 over a country almost incriditable[sic] to relate and as our horses were without shoes it was with difficulty we got along—

After we struck our encampment this evening we discried[sic] some Indians on horseback about a mile off Col Dodge sent some men to reganoiter[sic] and bring them to our camp if possible—Consequently (30) there was one Indian fellow brought in a prisoner who appeared verry[sic] much frightened but after having some assurance of our friendly Intention he appeared more composed Col Dodge presented him to our prisoners one of whom proved to be a relation of his after embracing each other in the most affectionate manner they set down and held a long converstation[sic] with each other Col Dodge at first determined to detain him as a prisoner least he should inform his party of our situation so they might better be prepared to make an attack but on a second consideration it was thought most advisable to let him go and inform his people of our friendly intentions by that means we might be able to get them to meet us in council therefore he left us probably better satisfied than he anticipated when he was taken. (31) This evening our hunters killed two deer which was verry[sic] exactly divided among the command this being our only resort for sustainance[sic] after dividing our scanty repast we retired to rest though not in a pleasant[sic] mode for sleep for we every moment expected an attack

July 21. Next morning we arose verry[sic] early and made preperations[sic] for a march to the village—There came to



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our camp this morning an old Indian who proved to be the father of the Kiawa girl we had along with us he informed us it was about five miles to their village. Accordingly we mounted our horses moved off in close order forming three columns About two miles from our Encampment we were met by large parties of Indians on horseback draped in their best warlike apparel. The colume[sic] was halted and (32) after shaking hands with them they marched on at the head of the command intirely[sic] friendly On coming[sic] near their village men women & children came out to meet us imploring Col Dodge not to fire on them. We all assured them of our friendly intentions but they appeared not to have confidence in us their[sic] women & children runing[sic] and hiding themselves in the hills under rocks & other places of concealment We marched through their village with all the military pomp and splendor the nature of our circumstances would admit We crossed over Red river assended[sic] the hill marched about two miles from their town halted remained about an hour mounted our horses came back through their village to the most favorable situation for an encampment immediately at the foot of a high granite of rock (33) The Indians led us on this way by informing us this was not the main town but that their principle village was over this hill which I believe was not the case It is the general opinion that those Indians led us this way in order to decoy us from their town This town is situated on the head of Red river their lodges are about four hundred in number they are made by placing smal[sic] poles in the ground coming to a point at the top covered over with thached[sic] grass; they are about sixty feet in circumferance[sic] warm and comfortable with a small hole at the top for the smoke to assend[sic] There is about twelve or fifteen persons to a lodge their village was surrounded by large paches[sic] of corn and (34) manny[sic] other garden vegetables common to a civilized people such as water mellons[sic] cucumbers Beans peas &c.—

Our encampment was on the river about a mile below the village at the foot of a high rocky mountain in a small grove of locust trees here we remained during the night not knowing what might be the determination of the Indians whether for peace or war Consequently Col Dodge put the encampment in the best order posible[sic] for defence[sic] expecting the Indians to attack us tonight. They gather around us in

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great numbers admiring the many curiosities of the white people The Squaws bring in roasting ears mellons[sic] green pumpkins squashes &c which they trade to us for buttons tobacco strips off our cloths shirts and many other articles we had to dispose of (35 I have seen a good cotton shirt sell to squaws for two ears of corn however friendly those Indians appear to be it is uncertain about their hostile intentions; but the night passes of without disturbance—

July 22 This morning large numbers of the Indians came into our encampment shook hands in friendship and appeared verry[sic] much gratified to see us.—During this day a number of us visited their town. We were treated with distinguished marks of friendship and hospitality we were conducted into their lodges and mellons[sic] corn with some dried Buffaloe[sic] meat neatly served up and set before us; we were invited to eat sumtiously[sic] which dish (although not verry[sic] clean) was verry[sic] thankfully received as we were on the brink of starvation having nothing to eat save what we got from those Indians (36)

They all appeared remarkable for their friendship and kindness particularly the squaws who appeared to admire the appearance of the Dragoons verry[sic] much more particularly those who have large whiskers & heavey[sic] beards; They perhaps never before have seen the face of a white man The women and children gather around us in astonishment some of whom are verry[sic] pretty in some of the young squaws may be traced marks of female beauty modesty and virtue although in a rude state of nature having none of the refinements of civilized life—The women in general are exposed to all the hardships and drudgery common to their mode of living they have to cultivate their corn fields & co all the work of husbandry which laborious duty they perform without a murmur (37) The dress of the squaws consist of dressed skins girted[sic] around their waist coming a little below the knee with leggins[sic] to come up to the knee beautifully ornamented with beads porcupine quills &c also Moccasins. the upper part of the body intrily [entirely] naked the hair hanging gracefully down the back touching the ground The mens[sic] dress consists of nothing but a brich[sic] clout girted[sic] around the loins with leggins[sic] some with Buffaloe[sic] skins thrown carelessly over the shoulders, others smaller & younger intirely naked This day there came into

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our Camp a negro man who had been taken by the Commanches on the Arkansas river last spring he informed us that there was a white boy among those Indians who was taken last spring likewise (38) This negro informed us that after he was taken he came ten days with those Indians without anything to eat save some plumbs berries &c but since he had been living among them they had treated him well had given him corn mellons[sic] Buffaloe[sic] meat &c to eat he appeared verry[sic] well satisfied with his situation [they] requireing[sic] of him nothing but to graze their horses. The principle wealth of those Indians consist of large droves of horses with which the prarie was literally covered some of their horses are verry[sic] fine eaqual[sic] to any that I have seen in the States. A blanket butcher knife & small piece of tobacco is equivelant[sic] to a horse in fact I have seen good ponies sold for a common bed blanket they being the most wanted Article with them—

(39) Col Dodge with the principle part of his officers returned to their village today in order to hold a council with them. On our arrival there we saw a small white boy On asking him his name he imphatically[sic] replied "Matthew Wright Martin"33 he appeared a verry[sic] intelegent[sic] boy of about six or seven years old although he had been verry[sic] unwell a [and] appeared quite delicate he still had destinct[sic] recollection of his father34 Mother and where they lived he states his Father himself and one or two servants came out on Red river on a hunting excrusion[sic] when the Indians came upon them in their camp and we are informed killed his father (although he says his father was not killed) and took him prisoner They gave him nothing to eat but some plumbs and wild berries (40) they gathered on their rout to this village we brought him into our camp he was admired verry[sic] much by the command. I gave him a small piece of hard cracker the only





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bread I had remaining he excepted of it with great cheerfulness and become verry[sic] much attached to me in consequence

July 23 This day the Kiawa and Wacao Indians arivd[sic] Their village is near here they are a hardy bold and warlike people the women verry[sic] hansome[sic] they dress something like the Pawnees or Toash women Those Indians are allies & friends to the Pawnee picks neighbors in peace and friends in war The only material difference is the Towash men women & children prick themselves with indelable[sic] ink in stripes down their arms face in fact every member of the body is pricked in this manner (41) Large numbers of the Commanche arived[sic] today the old chief come riding on a, verry[sic] fine horse he was a verry[sic] large man corpulent and muscular in appearance he inquired where our great Captain was and repaired thither immediately he imbraced[sic] Col Dodge and called him his great white brother. Every preparations necessary being made the following council was commenced and continued for three days. here I must remark that during the whole [time] the Indians behaved with as much respect and good order as could be expected from people of more refined manners—paying the greatest attention and appearing to retain everything they heard from their great white brother as they called Col. Dodge. (42)

The Council held at the Totash Village commenced 22d July 1835 [1834] Col Dodge met the chiefs & warriors of the Toyash tribe of Indians in council agreeably to previous notice—

Council being in order;—Col Dodge proceeded to speak as follows viz 35
We are the first Americans, who have ever come to see the Pawnees; we meet you as friends, not as enemies;—to make peace with you—to shake hands with you. The great American Captain is at peace with all the white men in



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the world, we have been sent here to view the country and to invite you to go to Washington where the great American chief lives to make a treaty with him, that you may learn how he wishes to send among you traders who will bring you guns & blankets and everything you want, The great American Captain wishes also to make peace between you and the Osages and the Cherokees Senacas Delawars (43 ) and Choctaws and all other red men that you may all meet together as friends and not shed each others blood as you have done—On our way to your village; we met a party of Commanches we showed to them a white flag which said to them "we wish to be friends" Their principle men were gone to hunt, we treated their old men women & children with kindness—we gave them presents—they had many horses we could have taken their horses from them but did not; we showed to them that we wanted to be at peace with them;—they told us that you were their friends we were glad to hear of it—We have come to your town and found you as defenseless as the Commanchees we have treated you as we treated them—The American people show their kindness by actions not by words alone—We have been told that a white man Was taken prisioner[sic] by you last Summer; that a white boy was made prisioner[sic] by you last Spring We have come now to require the boy at (44 ) your hands for we are told he is in your town. Give us the white boy" we will give you the Pawnee girl that we have brought with us; we wish all that has passed to be put behind us, to be forgotten; we wish to shake hands with you and be friends—You must now give me a positive and direct answer with regards to the white man who was taken last Summer and the white boy who was taken last Spring.

The Chief We-ter-ra-shah-ro replied "I know nothing of the white man who you say was taken last Summer the white boy is here—

Col Lodge resumed "I wish the boy brought to me I will then give to you the Pawnee girl this act together with all the information you can give me concerning the man who was taken last Summer will be the best proof that you can give of your sincerity of your disposition to shake hands & be at peace with us. I cannot leave the country Until we obtain possession of the boy and information respecting the

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(45) man who was taken last summer his name was Abby36 he was taken between Blue river and the Washita about this time last year.

Chief "I know nothing of it I believe it was the Commanches who took the man (on receiving some intelligence from one of his friends) I remmer [remember] now the Oways, who live South did it Col Dodge "Do the oways hunt on the grounds between the Blue & Washita rivers—

Chief "They hunt there; and I have heard that they took the man Abby and when they got near their camp they killed him

Col Dodge "How far do the Oways live from here

Chief "They follow the Buffaloe as the Commanches do; they have no town"

Here the accidental discharge of a pistol threw the whole council in a war like position; every heart palpitated every bow was strung in an instant; the chiefs and warriors flew to bows & arrows all for a moment was placed in a hostile attitude but fortunately the accident being explained (46) the council progressed friendly as before The white boy who had been sent for was brought in and presented to Col Dodge The boy was entirely naked about six or seven years of age his name was "Matthew Wright Martin a son of the late Judge Martin of Arkinsas[sic] Territory—

Chief, I am glad to shake hands with you with the red men you have brought with you the Osages Delewars & Cherokees—The principle chief is not here but you are as gladly received as he would have welcomed you, the chief is gone to the country of the Pawnee Mohaws; he believed you had gone that way the father of the Toyash girl went with the chief to seek his daughter—

Col Dodge, How did the Commanchees obtain the American flag I saw flying in their camp?

Chief The Pawnees from La Platte sent two flags one for the Wacoahs and the other to the Comanches—



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Col Dodge Do the Spaniards come here to trade with you (47)

Chief They do, but left us not long since and went west; Col Dodge The Americans will give you better & cheaper goods than the Spaniards do. Tell me if you know where the ranger Abby was taken & how he was killed;—

Chief, I have inquired & and have learned this day that the Indians who live near St Antonie in Mexico captured Abby and that they killed him on Red River

Col Dodge, What Indians kill our Santa Fe Traders—

Chief There is a roving tribe of verry[sic] bad Indians called Wakinas, they range north of the county of Arkansas—

(Col Dodge here presented the girl to her friends whereupon they conducted her froth the council)

Col Dodge, I am verry[sic] much pleased at the exchange of prisioners[sic]. I hope the friends of the girl will be happy with her She is a good girl; I wish her well. I will restore the little boy to his Mother her heart will be glad and she will think better of the Pawnees (48) A bright sun has shined on us this day; I hope the great Spirit will let it shine continually upon us. You have some Osage prisoners

We will exchange and give you your Pawnee friends and you shall restore the Osages to their friends how many Osages have you?

Chief There are Osages here they are men who are raised here, and do not wish to leave us, The Delaware woman & boy of the Toyash have died of a small pox, a great many of the Toyash have died of a small pox.

Col Dodge The American president will have a treaty of peace made between you all then you will meet and exchange prisoners this will be done when the next grass grows, The Osages who are with the Pawnees who then wish to return to the Osages will be able to return and the Pawnees who are with the Osages can come back to their people

Chief We wish to have it done soon (49 )

Col Dodge The American president wishes to see some of each nation shake hands before him, he will give presents to those who visit him and fix a permanent peace between

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thier nations; Peace cannot be made with all the tribes until a large white paper be written & signed by the president and the hands of all the chiefs,—Will your chiefs go with me now to see the American president? I also wish to take with me some Commanche chiefs, The President will be happy to see you, and as I told you before will mak[sic] you hansome[sic] presents of guns coats &c. (much demurring among the chiefs) Col Dodge proceeded. This is the proper time to make peace with the red man & white men if you do not sieze[sic] the opportunity you may not have another. The Bright Chain of friendship can now be made bright between all Indians & white men (50)

Chief—We do not like to pass through timber, it will be hard for us to pass through the timber between us & [the] white men—

Col Dodge—There are roads; a big road is now being made—

Chief, We have met here as friends and hope to remain so. The Great Spirit has seen us as we see now the white men Cherokees Osages Delawares & Senecas, as friends we hope to remain so—

Col Dodge, I hope so, How came you by the negro who is with you here?

Chief This Commanche brought him he found him on Red river you can take him and do as you please with him

(Here the council closed they agreed to meet Col Dodge at his tent in the morning before the sun was high)

July 23, We-ter-a-shah-ro and two other principle men met Col Dodge at his tent this morning (51) and held forth with him

The four leaders of the bands of Indians who were with [us] were present at the talk & participated therein.—Col Dodge Spoke & [as] follows.

Toyash chiefs, I told you yesterday that I wished to show you the road that leads to the great American Captain and make you acquainted with the Indians that live on the way thither. Have you thought of going with me. Our great Father wishes you to see the red men that live on the way that you may be better able to settle all difficulties with them you shall be well treated presents shall be made to you and you shall be sent back in safty[sic]. Peace cannot be

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made unless some of you go. I am not the great Captain he alone can make peace with you and other red men I wish only a few of you to go with me I wish you to go willingly and as (52) friends had I chosen to force you to go it would have been easy for me to have done it you see I do not wish to force you.

After a good deal of consultation one of the chiefs (a Wacoho) consented to go. Then the following interesting ceremony took place.—

The boy whom we recovered yesterday is the son of Judge Martin before mentioned who was killed some weeks since by a party of those Indians. The boy was with his Father on a hunting excrusion[sic] and being parted from him (This death however he did not witness and is now in ignorance of it) The boy relates that after being parted from his Father the Indians who had taken him were disposed save one to kill him This one shielded him and took care of him in sickness adopted him into his family as a member thereof protecting him from angry insults (53)

Col Dodge spoke and said for this noble kindness gave [give] him a rifle and caused they [the] boy to present to him with his own hand a pistol. The Indian evidently shed tears on receiving the pistol from the hands of the boy.

Col Dodge now assured the chiefs that they should have further presents if they would go with him to his country that he regretted that he had nothing of value with him but begged them to except some rifles pistols &c which they did with evident satisfaction—

Weterashahro and the other chief men with him consulted some time together on the subject of visiting the President

Weterashahro spoke We have been at war with the nations we see around us today we wish now to make peace with them. (54)

Col Dodge answered him It is the wish of the president that you make peace with them; that you present to each other clean hands It is to effect this I wish you to go with me, (The Chief resumed) We wish much to make peace with the Osages We have been long at war with them We wish to see the lands of the Creeks & Cherokees also to shake hands with all. We want to hear those In-

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dians who save come with you speak to us—The chief men of the four tribes now spoke as follows—

Dutch the Cherokee Chief (remarkable for his warlike exploits against those Indians) "I am now going to tell you what the Cherokees bade me say to you if we met as friends—He says to you his people wishes to come to you without fear and that you should visit them without fear. My heart is glad that we are (55) willing to be friends—a long time ago it was so—there was no war between us

I am rejoiced & my people will be rejoiced when they hear that it may be so again—

Look at me you see I speak the truth I have nothing more to say—

Beatte, leader of the Osage band—(A Frenchman who has lived nearly his whole lifetime among that tribe and matured to their manners & customs) We came for peace—I have brought a few Osages with me who are not afraid to come among [you], with hearts inclined for peace. We look on our friend (Col Dodge) as our Father he is a true Father to us all. I hope that you will believe all he says to you, and he will prove a father to you also—We wish you to visit our people to see how we live since the whiteman [men] have been our friends They have made us happy. they will make you happy—You Should go with (56) our father as he wishes. You must then come & see the Osages. I have said all that I can say—

Monpisha, or Bill (an Osage youth of fifteen years) spoke to the Toyashmen We shake hands with pleasure. I am nothing but a boy my father was an Osage Chief. We wish to be your Brothers. Dogs fight—we wish to be peaceable men and friends Our good Father has made in coming to you a great road we hope it will neer[sic] be stained with blood. My Father told me he was once a wild Indian, that the white man taught him to be happy instructed him how to build houses raise cattle and live like white man. I was sent to the white man’s School (Missionary School) was taught to read & write—this will be extended to you if you make peace with white men.

Your Buffaloe[sic] will be gone in a few years. your great Father the president will give you cattle and teach you how to live without Buffaloe[sic]. (57)

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George Bullet (a Delaware) Spoke When I tell the Delawares that we are friends and can hunt without waring[sic] together they will be happy Our children will hereafter be happy and not fear each other. We will no more fear the prairie Indian and you will not be afraid of us

Col. Dodge resumed—I am glad to hear what our friends say to you I must say to you now that I am verry[sic] sorry a few of our horses got into your cornfield last night, I Shall pay you for the damage done. It is not my wish to disturb your property in any manner. White men will always be just to you. I must also repeat that I regretted that the pistol was accidentally fired in the Council lodge yesterday I did not wish to alarm your people I was pleased with the coolness of your chief he was not alarmed (58) I wish you now to consider if some of you will go with me The chiefs signified they would go home and decide who should accompany the command on its march back, and accordingly left our camp—

Many Commanches arive[sic] to day amongst them the principle cheif Ta we que nah and two other chiefs Col. Dodge held the following talk with him in his tent—

Col. Dodge. The Great American Capt—has sent me to view this country and to offer the hand of friendship to all the red men who are here He wishes to see you all at peace with each other he desires you to come & see him that he may fix a permanent peace with your tribes he will make you presents and he will send traders among you who will serve you with [a] great many things that you want to make you happy The president who is a good father (59) to you wishes to see you at peace with the Osages Cherokees Delawares and all other red men. We have endeavored to give you evidence of our friendship—We did so when we passed your camp you were not at home your women & children were defendceless[sic] treated them kindly we confided in you too. Our sick men we left behind near your camp"

Ta-we que nah replied I passed a night in your camp with your sick men they treated us kindly

Col Dodge.—"You say that the Indians over Red river are your enemies they kill you when they meet you; these are Mexican Indians and do not make treaties with our

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great Father the president; but he will protect you , when you make peace with the Osages and other tribes that have been at war against you; the flag that you have came to you from your great father the President. The Pawnee Mohaws have (60) such a flag and all other red men who are our friends; whenever you show it you will be known as friends, I was glad to see the flag over your camp—

The Chief replied) I wish to be at peace with you; There are many tribes of Commanches I shall visit them all this year and will say to them what you have said to me they will all be glad to make peace with you. I am an old man now but never since I was a boy did I kill one of your people You ask who killed the Ranger (Abby) I can tell you for I remember when this white man was taken the Texas Cornmanches took this white man and carried him over Red river & there killed him—

Col Dodge,—I wish some of you to go with me so that you may see our country and that peace may be Made strongly between you and the red men as well as between ourselves. The Pawnee Mohaws met the (61) Osages Delawares and Cherokees on our lands and there made peace they were enemies before they are now friends and do not hate each other We wish you to come to us and make in the same way peace with us"

Te we que nah "You have girl who was taken from our friends the Kiowas, I have a Spanish girl who was taken from her friends, I will give you the Spanish girl for the Kiowa girl that you have brought with you—

Col Dodge,—I wish to secure your friendship and the friendship of the Kiowas I wish you to accompany me I wish some of the Kiowas to go also; but I do not mean to sell the girl to them I mean to give her to her relations & friends without price I will give the girl to her tribe they shall see how much their friends they [we] are—Ta, we, que, nah "If I go with you I shall be afraid to come back through the timber. Col Dodge I pledge myself that you shall be safely conducted back—(62) Ta we que nah "I cannot go mysellf my brother will go with you"—Here the talk was interupted[sic] by a band of some 20 or 30 Kiowas rushing on horseback into Camp and almost in the door of Col Dodges’ tent; the Squaws & children fled in great

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alarm The indignation of these Indians against the Osages had kindled to a great pitch and could scarcely be kept in respectful bounds in relation to us. The Osages not many months previously had murdered a large number of the women & children of the Kiowas whilst the men were absent hunting. We held in possession of which they were informed a Kiawah girl who was taken on the occation[sic] of the Masscre[sic] alluded to. The Kiawans who had just arived[sic] were not aware of the intention on our part to restore the girl and consequently presented themselves in a warlike shape that caused many a man in camp to stand by his arms during the day (63) Col Dodge however immediately addressed them with assurance of our friendly relations and gradually drew them into a friendly council with us. The next day was appointed council with all the tribes—Accordingly by ten oclock the Indians had assembled to the estimate number of, from 2 to 3000 wararors[sic] peculiarly adapted to fight or flight mostly on horseback. with their bows strung and quivers filled with arrows some with lances some war clubs battle axes and some few with rifles—They were elegantly mounted particularly the Commanches, who ride gracefully and are excelent[sic] horsemen The place appointed for the council was about one hundred yards from our encampment, where none but Col Dodge with his staff & a few others were permitted to attend. The rest of the command ordered to remain under arms during the day—(64) The Council being in order Col Dodge proceeded

Commanchee[sic] chief. You must be a great man and have great power, it is my wish and the wish of the great American’ Captain to secure your friendship for your lasting peace and happiness.

I therefore wish to determine whether you will go with me or not I wish to go as soon as practible[sic] as no time is to be lost here in consequence of the scarcity of our provisions—(Then Col Dodge brought forward the Kiowa girl and presented her to her parents and relations) with the following cerrimony[sic]. Kiowa Chiefs & braves you see in order to secure your lasting peace and friendship and do acts of kindness to you I give you your daughter and relation without money or without price (65) The father of

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the girl gave us a verry[sic] animated speech extolling Col Dodge and the white men saying You have brought my lost daughter back They would alternately come and fall upon the Cols neck and imbrace[sic] him envoking[sic] the blessings of the Diety[sic] to rest upon him. The Kiowa Chief Spoke as follows White men & brethren this day is the most interesting period of our existance[sic]. The great Spirit has caused a light to shine all around us so that we can see each other. The great Spirit has sent to see us these white men & brothers Kiowas, take them by the hand and use them well they are your friends; they have brought home your lost relation. When you meet a white man take him to your lodge give him Buffaloe[sic] meat & corn then he will always be your friend.(66) (The remaining part of the council was simular[sic] to that of yesterday) The (they) finally concluded for some of them to accompany us to Fort Gibson—

On the morning of the 25th There came to Col Dodgs tent all the principle Chiefs of the Toast Wacao Kiowa & Commanchs and demanded of Col Dodge in writing all the proceedings of the council as a lasting token of peace and friendship. They also came mounted on mules prepared to accompany the march they appeared eager to get off. Accordingly about half past 2 oclock we took up the line of march a little S. of E. a distance of about 8 miles.37 bearing considerable E of the way we went out. The Indians rode in front alone with the Col. and as I carried Matthew I rode in company with them.

July 26 Continued our march over a much better country than the rout we went out leaving all the high rocky hills to our right and left passing through a beautiful level vally[sic] covered with herbage also some sign of coal mines in this country frequent and large lumps of plaster of Paris, seen today We no [know] not how to account for our Pawnee Mohaw guide us the rout we went out whether his intentions were honest and he knew not the way, or he wished to decoy us in those intolerable hills of rocks so the Indians might come attack & exterminate us But certain it is he took us through the worst country ever passed over by any troop.



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verry[sic] little water today intirely[sic] out of provision except some horse & mule meat bought from the Indians, Come to Day about 25 miles38 Encamped near a (68) small muddy stream where we passed off the night weak fateigued[sic] and exhausted. One man taken sick this evening—

July 27 Our march to day was director39 nearly due E through a vally[sic] surrounded by high white granites of rocks about 2 Oclock this evening we arrived at Camp "Finley"[sic] where we left our sick on going out and Lt Izard40 in command We found this Camp in a desolate situation having to remain on post every alternate hour for three days without ever being relieved; the sick some little on the recovery. No Deaths save one boy servant to Lt. Wheelock We remained here this night Nothing of importance occurs Only making preperations[sic] for an early march to morrow morning directing our course towards Cantonment Leavenworth (69)

July 28th Early this morning all hands were up and making preperations[sic] for the march for the conveyance of the sick &c 8 of whom we had to carry in litters who were unable to ride on horseback The face of the country was rolling praries with some steep ravines and almost impenetrable thickets which was with difficulty the command and particularly the litters got through Our course today a little N of E. about 18 miles 41 We all now feel our situation hunger thirst and a burning sun almost sufficient to contract any disease and the pale sallow sun burnt features plainly showed the men cannot endure it much longer Among the most cheerful in the command was little Matthew, who appeared perfectly reconciled to his fate and no heroic youth ever displayed more bravery fortitude perseverance and endurance of hardships than this unfortunate child—his good sense strong mind and cheerful manner plainly shows that one day he will be a great man We struck our camp this evening after a march of about 20 mls.42











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July 29 This morning weak hungry and fateigued[sic] we were aroused by the well known sound of the Bugle and after disposing of our course and simple repast we all repaired to the prairie for our much jaded steeds—which were grazing promiscously[sic] for to satisfy their craving appetites—After saddling we all packed up and moved off in three colums[sic]. Traveling today weak and weary over a country similar to that of yesterday when all at once the resound was heard through the lines "Buffaloe Buffaloe"[sic] which was to us a pleasing sight (71) Instantly was heard the well known report of Beattes rifle who with his party brought into our camp tolerably plenty of this most excelent[sic] meat which served us with a most dilicious[sic] repast

It rained most incessantly hard during the day and night which purefied[sic] the Atmosphere[sic] verry[sic] much The sick report increasing Our march today was due East 20 miles43

July 30th Today we passed over some steep ravines the banks of which was lined with thick brush & undergrowth. Crossed the False Washita44 river about 200 miles above where we crossed it going out and as it is much smaller here we crossed it with less difficulty the river is not more than 40 yd wide and shallow enough to ford Some of our sick men dangerously ill 7 in litters.—(72) We passed today more timber than usual. Course a little N of E 15 miles halted & Encamped in a beautiful grove of timber45.

July 31st. Our march continued today over some high elevated prairies with verry[sic] little important occurancy[sic] in camp. Our whole diet now consist of Buffaloe[sic] meat without even salt Col Dodge declares his intentions of marching to Camp Cannadian as the soonest place of obtaining provisions for the men We came today about 12 miles46 halted and Encamped near a grove of timber water bad. Not having anything comfortable for the sick either in their transportation or anything comfortable for them to









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eat consequently they must of course dwindle and become weaker and much less able to endure the hardships of the prairie. (73)

Augst 1st. We proceeded on the march this morning at the usual hour, in a short time struck into the "cross timbers" which was not altogether as difficult in passing through as it was in the country farther South—This day we crossed the Cannad. about 100 miles above our former trail—The bottoms and prairie on both sides was litterally[sic] covered with Buffaloe[sic] running in large herds and from our own exertion also those of our hunters we were supplied with Buffaloe[sic] meat in great abundance This night we Encamped about one mile from —this river after marching about 12 miles through a desperately poor country47

Augst 2d We remained in camp today waiting the arival[sic] of an express sent to Gen Leavenworth also for the purpose of drying Buffaloe[sic] meat—(74) This express was sent to Gen Leavenworth for the purpose of informing him of our retrograde march who was following us with the remainder of the Dragoons and two Companies of the 3d Infantry also some pieces of Artilery. who were to march to our assistance if we met with the contemplated attack There were large parties of hunters sent out to kill Buffaloe[sic] of which they brought in, in great abundance—To see a bold Dragoon mounted on his steed rushing to the charge upon a herd of Buffaloe[sic] although worn down by fateigue[sic] & hunger. he approaches near the drove singles out the fattest and best cow reanimated with new vim he coragiously[sic] puts her to full flight and with whip & spur puts after her away over the plains for miles without stopping when at a distance of a mile you see the flash of his rifle then suddenly hear the explosion; Those Indians who were with us had a different mode of killing those wild cattle of the forest I saw one instance when one of those wild men of nature Strung his bow and without hesitation off he took to flight when he had got within about 15 or 20 paces of a fine fat cow let fly his pointed arrow and the arrow positively went some distance through the beast which proved her death in a verry[sic] short time. This



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is their only way of warfare as there are no guns among [them] they handle the Bow with great dexterity (76)

Augst 3d we moved our encampment about 1/2 mile48 ; in order to get water as the ravine or places where we were getting water has gone intirely[sic] dry—There is considerable discord and dissatisfaction prevails among the men every one anxious to proceed to where they can get some provisions. The express sent to Genl Leavenworth not yet returned our whole time employed in kill drying Buffaloe[sic] meat to last us into winter quarters for it is not intirely[sic] known to us whether we will go to Fort Gibson or Leavenworth. The place where we are now encamped is in the edge of a grove of timber thickly grown over with brshwoodland undergrowth 49 our spring dug in the side of bank of a Creek, this spring affords us but a small allowance of water—(77)

Augst 4th The command marched today about 10 mile 50 following the Buffaloe[sic] which ran before us in great numbers avoiding our active and expert hunters. This day in many places is spent by the citizens in electioneering carreers[sic] & oratorical strains But not so by us our principal [thought] is to obtain something to eat—Demegogues[sic] may prate for honor & profit, But a poor Dragoon could tell a more pitying and interesting tale to supply his immediate necessities—Nothing of importance occurs the weather verry[sic] warm some of our sick mending—

Augst. 5 Remain in camp today for the double purpose of drying Buffaloe[sic] meat and the arival[sic] of the express Accordingly about 12 Oclock the express brought to us the mournful inteligence[sic] of the Death of Genl. Leavenworta This Gallant & interprid[sic] officer pushed far in the interior of the country in while in delicate health also in a verry[sic] unhealthy climate. over come by fateigue[sic] he sunk to an untimely grave in the arderous[sic] performance of his duties to his country—On the reception of this inteligence[sic] Col Dodge declared his intention of proceeding to Fort Gibson with as little delay as possible touching near Camp Cannadian as a place of getting provisions our encampment tonight in a white oak thicket surrounded by high rolling







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Prairies with poor grazing for horses owing to the drouth[sic] which burned the grass intirely[sic] dead. The grazing for horses generally poor—(79)

Augst 6th This morning the command was ordered to march verry[sic] early accordingly at 8. Oclock we were all mounted and took up the line of march invigerated[sic] by new prospects of getting some provisions I say all I mean all that were able for there were nine now carried on litters. We directed our march through some of the most impenetrable brush thickets ever troops attempted to pass which was with great difficulty we got our litters through—We came today about 25 miles51 halted and Encamped near a grove of timber water miserably bad and verry[sic] scarce—

Augst 7th Per sued our march crossed a deep and muddy creek which was with difficulty we got over owing to the steepness[sic] of the banks and muddy bottom of the creek—(80) after crossing this dreadful marass[sic] we struck into a level bottom overgrown with high majestic trees. this bottom was never surpassed by fertility of soil nor excelency[sic] of timber; after we passed through this grove of timber we struck into high white oak ridges, grown over with small scruby[sic] white oak bushes imitating verry[sic] much the barrens of the more eastern parts, Marched today about 20 miles52 halted and encamped near a white oak thicket., verry[sic] little water warm sultry weather and verry[sic] dry little Matthew becoming a great favorite in the command—The Indians with us dislike verry[sic] much going through these timbers although they appear to be satisfied and think much of Col Dodge as their Great Father—(79)

Augst 8th Early this morning we mounted our horses and moved off for about 5 miles when we came into high Stony white oak ridges verry[sic] poor soil and injurious to our horses feet which were all without shoes; In coming over these Stony points we found among the Brushwood a variety of most delicious wine grapes of which we all partook freely and ate hartyly[sic]. We desended[sic] a long winding stony point at the foot of which hill we came to the little river (so called by the Indians) 53 This river is one fork of the Can-







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nadian and emties[sic] into it about one hundred miles bebelow[sic] this We crossed this river and encamped on the East bank immediately in a rich fertile Bottom—(82)

We came today about 20 miles54 In consequence of these long marches a great many of our horses are giving out some of which we are leaving behind and some others not Coming up until a late hour in the night. We found here a nut, growing in ponds of water and makes an Excelent[sic] substate[sic] for coffee—and of which the men make great use—

Augst 9 Our march today was through a varigated[sic] country of some prairie and woodland. Soil verry[sic] inferior some high rolling prairies and thick brush wood. until we struck the road55 leading from Fort Gibson to Camp Cannadan which road we followed within 3 miles of the latter when we halted and Encamped for the night56 (83)

Augst 10th 1834 We Remain in camp today for the purpose of obtaining some rations from Camp Cannadian. This evening we received four days rations which came verry[sic] acceptable to all hands now every man making preperations[sic] for cooking. The day past in recruiting ourselves & horses and when night came we retired to rest much better satisfied & more contented than we had been for some time—Every man now thinking his prospect of once more seeing civilized people quite favorable Every heart, was lighted up with joy when he thought such a hazardious[sic] expedition was about to terminate. It was a pleasing thought to every one to think he had purformed[sic] (84) his duty in penetrating so far in the western forest Early on the morning of the 11 we commenced the march to Fort Gibson nothing of importance occurs only when we haled to encamp and the prairie through which we traveled was all on fire. Our Encampment was frequently so much surrounded by the burning flames that we would have to get bushes and extinguish them—Came about 20 miles today.57 On the 12 resumed the march came walking alternately every hour for the purpose of releiveing[sic]











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our horses which were now becoming verry[sic] weak and giving out 8 or ten of a day—(85)

Augs 13d Came today about 15 miles58 and struck the N fork of the Cannadian in the Creek settlements where we got some more provisions also corn for our horses The Corn was now in a good graiting[sic] state. here we got good water This is an excelent[sic] country the land good and well cultivated those Indians live well. they rais vegetation of all kinds common to a civilized country—On the 14th We came about 15 miles59 and Encamped at our old camp Rendesvous[sic] next morning proceeded on to the Arkansas river where all the command (save Col Dodge his staff & ordinance stores) were ordered to encamp Col Dodge with his staff (86) and myself earring Matthew crossed the river & encamped about one mile below the Fort—The Morning of the 17 we all went into the fort every person anxious to see little Matthew The Dragoon Encampment was situated above the Fort on a high and Commanding Emenance[sic] where there was a great number of sick Our pale haggered[sic] and sallow complection[sic] and raged appearance too plainly showed we had been on a long and hazardious[sic] Campaign. We remained here until the 25 inst. when Col Kearney arived[sic] from Washita with his command who were all then or had been sick The men were dying of four or five of a day (87) Col Dodge sent Messages to all the Cheifs of the surrounding tribes of Indians wishing them to come and hold a treaty with their "far Western" Brethren—

For Several days those Indians were gathering in from all parts The more refined Choctaws Cherokees Creeks Delewars & Senecas next the less uncivilized though move warlike Osages All those Indians had their different encampments although were entirely friendly when they met—To see this motly[sic] collection of severally toungs[sic] and different tribes mingling together in harmony and friendship would be a fit subject for a writer; for it resembled a fair or an Election more than anything else I (88) could compare it; with their different dresses and ornaments they looked really well—!





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On the morning of the 2d of Sept Col Dodge accompanied by Maj Armstrong (Indian agent) with several officers of Government met in the old Garrison Theater—

The Council60 being in order Col Dodge Spoke as follows; "This Day [there] has arived[sic] a friend from your Great Father the President (meaning Maj Armstrong) he wishes to secure your friendship and also promote your friendship with one another —, You have been at war he wants you now to berry the tomahawke of war and Smoke the pipe of peace he wishes you to come up shake hands and make peace with one another—(89) This being interperted[sic] through the different intepeters[sic] of their respective tribes The Choctaws Cherokees Senecas Delewars & Shawnees all went up in rotation and imbraced[sic] the Toash Chief shook him by the hand and declared ever to be his friend Next they turned to the Kiowa who hugged the cheifs of the different tribes by placing his hands alternatly[sic] on the left then the right sholder[sic] of his more corpulent and civilized Brethren then placing his hand on his own bosom then the bosom of his friend also each others forehead in like manner—he then said something and passed on to the different cheifs going through a similar proceeding with all tile head chiefs (90) The Osages appeared verry[sic] unwilling to cone up when told to do so and when they were coming up the Kiowa Cheif took his seat and it was some time before he would assent to shake hands with the Osages—At last he arose and huged[sic]the Osage cheif as he had the others At the conclusion of this cermony[sic]Council adjourned until 10 Oclock tomorrow morning—

The Statue Noble bearing and muscular form of many of the Indians as related by various writers would here appear to be fully relized[sic] were mostly under the common size and had none of that imaginary grandier[sic]eperesented[sic]xist among the ancients in a state of nature—The Osages however are much the most regular featured best built and largest though the most corpulent size—(91) Some



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few traits of their Archilian[sic]t and Herculian strenth[sic]ared in their brawny but well purpotioned[sic]s and the deep sedate countenances and fixed eye uncaught by vain curisity[sic]or glistening[sic] trinkets that ornamented their more polished brethren—the Choctaws & Cherokees seemed to carry the mind back to times long since gone by—

They appeared unconcious[sic] of the bustle and meriment[sic] occationed[sic] by the novel form the Toash & Kiowas had of making peace—

On the 23rd (Pursuent to adjournment) the different tribes assembled in the council house and after having a talk among themselves (except the Osages who did not join in the assembly) The purport of which council was similar to that of yesterday. They all seated themselves at a respectable distance and came (92) up by turns and mad speches[sic] to their red Brethren from "the Setting Sun"—The Osage chief was the last to come up and with some reluctance he did so At lenth[sic] rising from his seat he walked with a firm step in front of them then stopping stretched forth his well proportioned arm and pointing to the different tribes therein collected he spoke as follows; "By this time you must be somewhat acquainted with the ways of our Great Father. Our Great Father is verry[sic] wise; and all the men you see collected around you are his children and my Brethren—The Great Spirit is looking at us now and I am for making peace with you all I wish you to tell the truth so that if you are for peace we may be able to raise our children (93) in peace—All the rest of the Red men you see around you are at peace with the white man and with one another—and their faces are getting whiter and whiter. So they hardly any longer appear to be my red Brethren. You alone remain out of the settled country, and my tribe have as hitherto alone wared[sic] against you because you were enemies to the white man. You must now follow the white mans advice or you may be made to fill [feel] his wrath so saying he took his seat. After several intorogatorys[sic] by Col Dodge & others the Council adjourned Sine Dei, and all broke up in harmony & friendship Little Matthew61 was sent to



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his Mother and those Indians back to their country (94 ) Four Companies are making preperations[sic] for to march to Fort Leavenworth The sickness is now becoming verry[sic] alarming as we have a great many deaths every day—Capt Ford taken sick62

On the 8 of Sept three Companies randizvoused[sic] on the Verdegris river in the Creek Nation. Where we remained two days making preperations[sic] for the march to Fort Leavenworth. Our march from there to the above post was preperations[sic] for the march to Fort Leavenworth. Our march from there to the above post was performed in about 18 days with verry[sic] little interuption[sic]. passing through a most beautiful fertile country of land touching at some of the Osage Indian towns. We also past the frontier of the Missouri state bounding on the Indian lands—then striking into the Sineca Shawnee and Delaware country crossing the "Kansow" river about two miles from its mouth into the Missouri. This river is very wide and shallow by no means suitable for navigation at least any distance up it. On the 22d of September we all arived[sic] safe at Fort Leavenworth (there being verry[sic] few sick on the way)—At the sight of this garrison our hearts leaped with joy to think we would soon be comfortably situated in winter quarters after so long and fateiguing[sic] Campaign.

here we found good warm comfortable houses to shelter us from the storms of the approaching winter On our arival[sic] here we [found] there were two Companies of the 5 Infantary[sic] who immediately embarked for Jefferson Barracks which gave us sufficient room and our toils and fateigues[sic] were measurably ended—





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